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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

95. Cremanthodium Bentham, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 12: 37. 1873.

垂头菊属 chui tou ju shu

Authors: Shangwu Liu & Irina D. Illarionova

Herbs, perennial. Rhizomes short, with rosette leaves, very rarely without rosette leaves. Roots fleshy, numerous. Stem arising from outer axil of rosette leaves, solitary, or 2- or 3-crowded, usually scapelike. Leaves all or many crowded and basal, petiolate; petiolar base broadly sheathed; leaf blade palmately, pinnately, or parallel veined. Stem leaves alternate, bracteal, with or without sheath. Capitula solitary or many in raceme, nodding; leaflike bracts linear, rarely broadly ovate or elliptic. Involucre hemispheric, rarely broadly campanulate, base rounded; phyllaries in 2 rows, imbricate, outer phyllaries narrow; inner phyllaries broad, often margin membranous, or phyllaries in 1 row, equal in size, base united; all phyllaries outside glabrous or hairy, apex ciliate. Receptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets female, radiate or rarely narrowly tubular; lamina well developed, diverse, usually several times as long as involucre, rarely absent. Central florets tubular, bisexual; limb 5-lobed. Anthers basally obtuse. Style branches compressed, apex obtuse or triangular, papillose-hairy. Achenes glabrous, ribbed. Pappus of denticulate hairs as long as or shorter than tubular corolla, rarely absent.

About 69 species: Bhutan, China, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; 69 species (46 endemic) in China.

1 Leaves reniform or orbicular-reniform, cordate-reniform, or hastate, palmately or palmate-pinnately veined   (2)
+ Leaves variable in shape, pinnately or parallel veined   (21)
2 (1) Capitula without ray florets; phyllaries apically rounded or obtuse   (3)
+ Capitula with ray florets; phyllaries apically acute or acuminate   (7)
3 (2) Phyllaries petaloid, membranous, purplish red or rarely yellowish white, broadly elliptic or obovate-oblong, outside purplish red pilose, rarely white pilose, apex rounded   (4)
+ Phyllaries leaflike, herbaceous, dark brown, oblong or oblanceolate, outside glabrous or pilose, apex obtuse   (5)
4 (3) Leaf margin regularly crenate or lobed.   1 C. campanulatum
+ Leaves palmatisect.   2 C. pinnatisectum
5 (3) Phyllaries oblong, margin broadly brown membranous, apex entire; pappus shorter than tubular corolla; leaves glabrous, abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green.   3 C. calcicola
+ Phyllaries usually oblanceolate, margin not membranous, apex denticulate or erose; pappus as long as tubular corolla; leaves concolorous on both surfaces   (6)
6 (5) Sheaths of stem leaves tubular, outside glabrous; phyllaries black, base shortly pilose, outside glabrous; pappus white.   4 C. atrocapitatum
+ Sheaths of stem leaves cucullate, outside white arachnoid-puberulent; phyllaries outside glabrous; pappus yellowish brown.   5 C. cucullatum
7 (2) Ray lamina yellow, oblong to lanceolate, apex acuminate, rarely obtuse   (8)
+ Ray lamina purplish red or yellow, broadly oblanceolate or cuneate, apex truncate or rounded, 3-lobed, rarely 3-denticulate   (12)
8 (7) Ray lamina oblong, apex acute or obtuse   (9)
+ Ray lamina ovate- or linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate or caudate   (10)
9 (8) Leaves glabrous, with conspicuous white reticulate veins on both surfaces or at least abaxially; involucre outside initially shortly pilose, glabrescent; ray lamina apically obtuse.   6 C. smithianum
+ Leaves abaxially brown pilose, without reticulate veins; involucre outside brown pilose; ray lamina apically acute.   7 C. decaisnei
10 (8) Ray lamina linear-lanceolate, membranous, transparent; pappus as long as tubular corolla; leaves angular dentate.   8 C. stenoglossum
+ Ray lamina ovate-lanceolate, not transparent; pappus shorter than to as long as tubular corolla; leaves crenate or coarsely dentate   (11)
11 (10) Pappus brown, shorter than tubular corolla; leaves green on both surfaces, margin crenate.   9 C. citriflorum
+ Pappus yellowish brown, as long as tubular corolla; leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially green, margin coarsely dentate.   10 C. pulchrum
12 (7) Ray lamina purple; pappus white   (13)
+ Ray lamina yellow; pappus white or brown   (15)
13 (12) Leaves palmatipartite; tubular florets purplish red.   11 C. palmatum
+ Leaf margin regularly crenate; tubular florets yellow or purplish red   (14)
14 (13) Leaves abaxially densely white arachnoid-pilose; tubular florets yellow; styles proximally yellowish white, distally blackish gray, as long as tubular corolla.   12 C. farreri
+ Leaves abaxially sparsely pilose; tubular florets purplish red, styles purplish red, 2-2.5 cm, longer than tubular corolla.   13 C. rhodocephalum
15 (12) Leaves cordate-reniform or hastate   (16)
+ Leaves reniform or orbicular-reniform   (18)
16 (15) Stem simple; leaves hastate, leaf margin usually entire or sparsely irregularly dentate; pappus as long as tubular corolla.   18 C. forrestii
+ Stems several; leaves cordate-reniform to hastate, leaf margin dentate; pappus shorter than tubular corolla   (17)
17 (16) Leaves cordate-reniform; involucre ca. 20 mm; pappus brown, ca. 4 mm, much shorter than tubular corolla.   19 C. medogense
+ Leaves cordate-reniform to hastate; involucre 30-32 mm; pappus yellowish, 7-8 mm, slightly shorter than tubular corolla.   20 C. latilobum
18 (15) Plants slender; leaves thin, margin angular dentate; ray lamina apically rounded, denticulate; pappus white.   14 C. reniforme
+ Plants robust; leaves thick, margin regularly dentate; ray lamina apically truncate, 3- or 4-lobed   (19)
19 (18) Stem leaves with bulbil inside sheaths; pappus white.   15 C. bulbilliferum
+ Stem leaves without bulbil inside sheaths; pappus brown   (20)
20 (19) Basal leaves glabrous; petiole glabrous or distally brown pilose; petiole of stem leaves enlarged into leaf blade, margin sharply dentate; pappus shorter than tubular corolla.   16 C. phyllodineum
+ Basal leaves abaxially shortly black pilose along veins; petiole glabrous; petiole of stem leaves sheathlike, margin entire; pappus as long as tubular corolla.   17 C. thomsonii
21 (1) Leaves bluish green or grayish green, linear to broadly elliptic, parallel or straight veined   (22)
+ Leaves green or differently colored on both surfaces, lanceolate to oblong, pinnately veined   (27)
22 (21) Involucre outside densely brown or purplish brown pilose; leaves lanceolate to elliptic   (23)
+ Involucre outside glabrous; leaves linear to oblanceolate   (25)
23 (22) Capitulum solitary, without ray florets.   21 C. angustifolium
+ Capitula 1-13, in raceme or solitary, with ray florets; lamina membranous, transparent, linear-lanceolate, 25-70 × 1.5-5 mm, apex acuminate   (24)
24 (23) Leaflike bracts linear to lanceolate, herbaceous, green.   22 C. brunneopilosum
+ Leaflike bracts ovate, membranous, yellowish white.   23 C. stenactinium
25 (22) Ray lamina linear-lanceolate, to 4 cm, apex acuminate or absent; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, usually 2-5 mm wide, rarely to 30 mm wide.   24 C. lineare
+ Ray lamina oblong, elliptic, or oblanceolate, 12-16 × 3-6 mm, apex obtuse or truncate; leaves oblong or oblanceolate to linear, 2-11 mm wide   (26)
26 (25) Leaves linear, 2-3.5 mm wide, margin revolute, entire, apex rounded.   25 C. bhutanicum
+ Leaves oblong or oblanceolate, 6-11 mm wide, margin remotely denticulate, apex acute.   26 C. conaense
27 (21) Ray lamina broadly oblanceolate or cuneate, apex truncate, lobed   (28)
+ Ray lamina elliptic or lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate   (31)
28 (27) Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect   (29)
+ Leaf margin entire or dentate, rarely lobed   (30)
29 (28) Leaves ovate, lobes narrowly lanceolate, 10-30 × 1-4 mm; involucre glabrous.   27 C. dissectum
+ Leaves oblong, lobes oblong, 4-8 × ca. 1 mm; involucre blackish pilose.   28 C. pinnatifidum
30 (28) Leaves spatulate, margin triangularly dentate or denticulate, base truncate; pappus white; stem densely white pilose.   29 C. sino-oblongatum
+ Leaves hastate or ovate-cordate, margin entire to lobed or crenate, base cordate; pappus pale brown; stem glabrous.   30 C. trilobum
31 (27) Plants greenish gray or bluish green, glabrous, usually mealy; stem leaves numerous, erect, adnate, tubular-amplexicaul or only base amplexicaul   (32)
+ Plants green, hairy, at least stem distally and involucre at base, rarely glabrous   (41)
32 (31) Leaflike bracts as leaf blade, usually surrounding involucre; ray lamina narrowly lanceolate, apex acuminate   (33)
+ Leaflike bracts linear, not surrounding involucre   (34)
33 (32) Leaves ovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic, base cuneate.   31 C. helianthus
+ Leaves narrowly elliptic or spatulate, base gradually narrowed.   32 C. suave
34 (32) Capitula 5-10, in raceme; ray lamina 5-7 mm, slightly longer than involucre; pappus pale yellow, 2-3 mm, ca. 1/2 as long as tubular corolla   (35)
+ Capitulum solitary; ray lamina longer than involucre; pappus white or pale yellow   (36)
35 (34) Basal leaves broadly elliptic, base gradually narrowed into a narrowly winged petiole; stem leaves apically obtuse.   33 C. botryocephalum
+ Basal leaves broadly spatulate-oblong, base gradually narrowed into a broadly winged petiole; stem leaves apically acuminate.   34 C. spathulifolium
36 (34) Leaves petiolate; petiole 3-11 cm, slender; leaf blade oblong or elliptic, base rounded   (37)
+ Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate; leaf blade ovate or lingulate-spatulate; ray lamina apically acuminate; pappus white, as long as tubular corolla   (39)
37 (36) Pappus white, as long as tubular corolla; ray lamina apically acuminate.   35 C. glaucum
+ Pappus much shorter than tubular corolla or absent; ray lamina apically obtuse, acute, or acuminate   (38)
38 (37) Pappus absent; ray lamina apically acuminate.   36 C. bupleurifolium
+ Pappus pale yellow, 1-2 mm, 1/5-1/2 as long as tubular corolla; ray lamina apically acute or obtuse.   37 C. brachychaetum
39 (36) Leaves lingulate-spatulate, base gradually narrowed into a broad petiole.   38 C. lingulatum
+ Leaves ovate or cordate, base cordate, narrowly petiolate   (40)
40 (39) Leaves ovate; petiole glabrous.   39 C. yadongense
+ Leaves cordate; petiole brown pilose.   40 C. cordatum
41 (31) Phyllaries in 1 row, equal in size, base united, cupular   (42)
+ Phyllaries in 2 rows, separate, outer narrow, inner broad, outside glabrous or hairy   (47)
42 (41) Leaves 12-15 × 6-9 cm; petiole 15-30 cm; capitula 3, in corymb-raceme, long pedunculate; involucre outside black pilose; ray lamina linear-lanceolate.   41 C. petiolatum
+ Leaves 0.7-6 × 1-4 cm, shortly petiolate; capitulum solitary; involucre outside black or white pilose; ray lamina oblong   (43)
43 (42) Ray lamina as long as involucre or tubular florets; phyllaries apically rounded; leaves abaxially white pilose   (44)
+ Ray lamina longer than involucre; phyllaries apically acute or acuminate; leaves glabrous or abaxially pilose   (45)
44 (43) Outer florets radiate; lamina yellow, as long as involucre.   42 C. nanum
+ Outer florets radiate or narrowly tubular, as long as tubular florets in center; lamina white, smaller or absent; slender tubular florets with short corolla.   43 C. microglossum
45 (43) Plants with rosette leaves; underground stems absent; leaves glabrous, margin revolute.   44 C. microphyllum
+ Plants without rosette leaves; leaves all stem, abaxially densely white pilose, adaxially glabrous; underground stem rhizomelike, with scale leaves   (46)
46 (45) Leaf margin entire to shallowly dentate.   45 C. humile
+ Leaf margin pinnately laciniate; segments linear-oblong.   46 C. laciniatum
47 (41) Ray florets absent; involucre outside densely dark brown pilose; leaves abaxially greenish white, adaxially dark green, margin entire.   47 C. discoideum
+ Ray florets present, if ray florets absent or with short lamina then involucre outside blackish gray pilose; leaf margin coarsely dentate   (48)
48 (47) Capitula large; ray lamina tapelike, narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, usually 2-4 × as long as involucre, apex acuminate   (49)
+ Capitula small; ray lamina oblong, elliptic to linear, often 1-2 × as long as involucre   (56)
49 (48) Leaves densely hairy, oblong, obovate to orbicular; involucre outside white and black pilose   (50)
+ Leaves glabrous, variable in shape; involucre outside blackish purple-brown or white pilose, rarely glabrous   (51)
50 (49) Leaves densely white pilose, base narrowed into a broadly winged petiole; capitula 1-4, solitary or in corymb-raceme.   48 C. obovatum
+ Leaves densely shortly white pilose, base rounded, narrowly petiolate; capitulum solitary.   49 C. puberulum
51 (49) Leaf base cordate or truncate   (52)
+ Leaf base cuneate   (54)
52 (51) Leaves ovate, base cordate, margin entire; ray lamina linear-lanceolate, 2-5 mm wide; pappus white.   50 C. prattii
+ Leaves triangular or sagittate, margin dentate; ray lamina broadly lanceolate, 6-9 mm wide; pappus pale brown   (53)
53 (52) Leaves concolorous on both surfaces, triangular, 6-13 cm, base truncate.   51 C. delavayi
+ Leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, sagittate, 1.5-3 cm, base cordate.   52 C. sagittifolium
54 (51) Involucre outside purplish red or white pilose; stem glabrous; leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially green, broadly lanceolate, margin coarsely dentate.   53 C. daochengense
+ Involucre outside brown or dark brown pilose; stem shortly black pilose; leaves glabrous or yellow pilose, obovate or broadly elliptic, margin subentire or denticulate   (55)
55 (54) Leaves glabrous, margin subentire.   54 C. nobile
+ Leaves yellow pilose, margin denticulate or subentire.   55 C. pilosum
56 (48) Capitula 2-13, in raceme; stem leaves normal; plants robust, tall   (57)
+ Capitulum solitary, rarely 3; stem leaves bracteal, ovate-oblong to linear; plants dwarf   (59)
57 (56) Involucre outside black pilose; ray lamina broadly elliptic; stem leaves ovate.   56 C. arnicoides
+ Involucre outside white pilose; ray lamina oblong; stem leaves oblong or ovate-oblong   (58)
58 (57) Leaves herbaceous, white arachnoid-puberulent, scarcely veined; stem leaves with sheath amplexicaul; peduncles equal, to 1 cm; raceme not spreading.   57 C. chungdienense
+ Leaves leathery, glabrous, prominently veined; stem leaves not amplexicaul; peduncles unequal, 2-6 cm; raceme spreading.   58 C. coriaceum
59 (56) Pappus brown; leaf base cordate   (60)
+ Pappus white; leaf base usually cuneate, truncate, or rounded, if base cordate then involucre outside shortly black pilose   (62)
60 (59) Basal leaves ovate-cordate or ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate; involucre broadly campanulate; ray lamina linear.   59 C. potaninii
+ Basal leaves ovate-cordate to orbicular-cordate or squarelike; involucre hemispheric; ray lamina oblong   (61)
61 (60) Leaves small, leathery, nitid, conspicuously reticulate veined.   60 C. cyclaminanthum
+ Leaves large, herbaceous, scarcely reticulate veined, abaxially glabrous or brown pilose along veins.   61 C. principis
62 (59) Involucre outside shortly black pilose or glabrous; leaf base cordate or rounded; ray lamina slightly longer than involucre   (63)
+ Involucre outside white or blackish gray pilose, rarely glabrous; leaf base usually cuneate, rarely truncate   (65)
63 (62) Leaves thin, often purplish red, scarcely reticulate veined.   62 C. purpureifolium
+ Leaves thick, green, conspicuously prominently reticulate veined   (64)
64 (63) Basal leaves reticulate veined on both surfaces; capitula sometimes 3; ray lamina broadly elliptic.   63 C. nervosum
+ Basal leaves abaxially reticulate veined; capitulum solitary; ray lamina oblong.   64 C. nepalense
65 (62) Basal leaves narrowly petiolate; petiole densely pilose, not winged; stem leaves numerous, linear, erect, margin entire; involucre outside glabrous; ray lamina slightly longer than involucre, apex truncate.   65 C. variifolium
+ Basal leaves broadly petiolate; petiole winged, glabrous or hairy, sometimes enlarged into a leaflike blade; stem leaves ovate-oblong to lanceolate, margin dentate; ray lamina 2-3 × as long as involucre, apex acute   (66)
66 (65) Involucre outside glabrous, phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, apex acuminate.   66 C. pseudo-oblongatum
+ Involucre outside densely hairy, phyllaries lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute or obtuse   (67)
67 (66) Involucre outside white arachnoid-puberulent.   67 C. oblongatum
+ Involucre outside blackish gray pilose   (68)
68 (67) Leaves and petiole glabrous.   68 C. ellisii
+ Leaves and petiole densely glandular pilose.   69 C. glandulipilosum

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