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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 16 | Boraginaceae

8. Lithospermum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 132. 1753.

紫草属 zi cao shu

Buglossoides I. M. Johnston.

Herbs annual or perennial, short strigose. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal or flowers solitary, bracteate. Calyx 5-parted nearly to base, slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla white, yellow, or violet, actinomorphic, funnelform or salverform; throat with appendages or bands of hairs, or longitudinally crispate; limb usually campanulate, 5-parted; lobes spreading. Stamens included; filament very short; anthers oblong-linear, apex obtuse, mucronulate. Style filiform, not exserted; stigma entire or indistinctly 2-cleft, capitate. Gynobase flat. Nutlets white or gray, ovoid, smooth, shiny or tuberculate; attachment scar at base adaxially.

The genus is here treated in the broad sense. Species 3 and 4 are frequently placed in Buglossoides.

About 50 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America; five species in China.

1 Corolla more than 1.5 cm, violet, blue-purple, or purple-red.   (2)
+ Corolla less than 1 cm, white or pale yellow-green (sometimes blue in L.arvense).   (3)
2 (1) Leaf blade linear to linear-lanceolate, 4-15 cm, crowded; persistent; stems sheathed by overlapping leaf bases; rhizomes absent   5 Lithospermum hancockianum
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate to spatulate, 3-6 cm, sparsely arranged; stems without sheathing leaf bases; rhizomes present   4 Lithospermum zollingeri
3 (1) Herbs annual; nutlets triangular-ovoid, gray-brown, finely tuberculate   3 Lithospermum arvense
+ Herbs perennial; nutlets ovoid, white or slightly yellowish brown, smooth, shiny.   (4)
4 (3) Corolla 7-9 mm, tube ca. as long as limb, lobes broadly ovate, ca. as long as wide, throat appendages glabrous; roots with a copious purple dye   1 Lithospermum erythrorhizon
+ Corolla 4-6 mm, tube ca. 2 × as long as limb, lobes oblong-ovate, longer than wide, throat appendages short pubescent; roots with little or no purple dye   2 Lithospermum officinale

Lower Taxa


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