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39. Salsola Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 222. 1753.

猪毛菜属 zhu mao cai shu

Herbs annual, subshrubs, or shrubs, glabrous, pilose, hispid, or papillate. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, sessile, terete or semiterete, rarely linear, base usually expanded, sometimes decurrent, apex obtuse or with an acicular awn. Flowers bisexual, solitary or glomerulate in bract axils, forming a spicate or paniculate inflorescence on upper part of branches; bracts ovate or broadly lanceolate; bractlets 2. Perianth 5-parted; segments ovate-lanceolate or oblong, adaxially concave, membranous, becoming hardened later, glabrous or pilose, with a transverse, winglike appendage near middle abaxially; distal portion of segments incurved, apices usually connivent, together embracing utricle and appearing conic; abaxial appendage spreading, membranous in fruit, sometimes undeveloped and appearing crestlike or tuberculate. Stamens 5; filaments subulate or narrowly linear, flattened; anthers oblong, apex appendaged, appendage apex acute or obtuse, variously shaped, or very small. Ovary broadly ovoid or globose, depressed; style long or very short; stigmas 2, erect or recurved, subulate or filiform, adaxially papillate. Fruit a utricle, globose; pericarp membranous or fleshy. Seed horizontal, vertical, or oblique; embryo spiral; perisperm absent.

About 130 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, a few species in North America; 36 species (three endemic) in China.

In its traditional circumscription, Salsola s.l. is a paraphyletic or probably even polyphyletic group of taxa rather than a phylogenetically justified genus. Recent studies indicate that several widely recognized genera of Salsoleae (e.g., Girgensohnia, Halothamnus, Haloxylon, and Noaea Moquin-Tandon) as well as many proposed segregate genera (e.g., Caroxylon Thunberg, Climacoptera Botschantzev, Darniella Maire & Weiller, Hypocylix Woloszczak, Neocaspia Tzvelev, Nitrosalsola Tzvelev, and Xylosalsola Tzvelev), are probably phylogenetically rooted in Salsola sensu latissimo. However, more research is needed for justification of any dramatic taxonomic changes in that group. Because of that, Salsola is accepted here in its traditional circumscription.

1 Leaf apex acicular awned; herbs annual, papillate, hispid, or glabrous.   (2)
+ Leaf apex obtuse, not acicular awned; shrubs, subshrubs, or annual herbs, with other types of hairs or glabrous.   (17)
2 (1) Leaves broadly linear, proximally 5-7(-10) mm wide; perianth segment above wing reflexed, not embracing utricle; anthers free from base to near apex.   21 S. aperta
+ Leaves terete, semiterete, or narrowly lanceolate, proximally not more than 4 mm wide; perianth segments above wing embracing utricle; anthers free from base to middle.   (3)
3 (2) Perianth segments abaxially wingless or with an irregular process in fruit.   (4)
+ Perianth segments abaxially winged in fruit.   (7)
4 (3) Plants glabrous; leaves semiterete.   (5)
+ Plants papillate or hispid; leaves filiform-terete or narrowly lanceolate.   (6)
5 (4) Stem and branches striate; leaves all alternate; utricle 2-2.5 mm in diam.   23 S. komarovii
+ Stem and branches not striate; lower leaves opposite, upper ones alternate; utricle 3-4 mm in diam.   22 S. soda
6 (4) Leaves filiform-terete; flowers forming spikes on upper branches; bracts and bractlets tightly appressed to rachis; anthers 1-1.5 mm.   24 S. collina
+ Leaves narrowly lanceolate; flowers distributed throughout plant; bracts and bractlets spreading; anthers ca. 0.5 mm.   25 S. zaidamica
7 (3) Perianth with only 1 segment abaxially winged in fruit; anthers ca. 0.3 mm.   26 S. monoptera
+ Perianth with all segments abaxially winged in fruit; anthers 0.5-1 mm.   (8)
8 (7) Perianth segments above wing abaxially green and fleshy keeled.   (9)
+ Perianth segments above wing abaxially neither green nor fleshy keeled.   (10)
9 (8) Perianth segment apex pungent, together connivent and forming a cone, perianth (including wings) 5-7 mm in diam.   27 S. tamariscina
+ Perianth segment apex obtuse, together embracing utricle and not forming a cone, perianth (including wings) 8-10 mm in diam.   28 S. rosacea
10 (8) Perianth segment apex acicular, together connivent and forming a cone, rarely apex membranous and thinly long aristate.   (11)
+ Perianth segment apex not acicular, neither connivent nor forming a cone.   (14)
11 (10) Wing margin irregularly dentate; perianth segments above wing hardened, together connivent and forming a cone; leaf base distinctly expanded.   29 S. chinghaiensis
+ Wing margin subentire; perianth segments above wing together connivent and forming a cone, or apex membranous and thinly long aristate; leaf base slightly expanded.   (12)
12 (11) Plants slender, not more than 30 cm tall, fr. May-Jun.   30 S. praecox
+ Plants stout, to 50 cm tall, fr. Aug-Sep.   (13)
13 (12) Stems light red-brown, yellow-brown after drying; perianth (including wings) 5-8 mm in diam. in fruit, apex of segments hardened, becoming acicular.   31 S. paulsenii
+ Stems green; perianth (including wings) 7-12 mm in diam. in fruit, apex of segments becoming acicular or membranous and thinly long aristate.   32 S. pellucida
14 (10) Leaves 0.5-0.8 mm wide; perianth (including wings) 4-6 mm in diam. in fruit; anthers ca. 0.5 mm.   33 S. sinkiangensis
+ Leaves 1-2 mm wide (sometimes 0.5-0.7 mm wide in S. tragus); perianth (including wings) 5-10 mm in diam. in fruit; anthers 0.8-1 mm.   (15)
15 (14) Bracts and bractlets reflexed in fruit; stigma nearly equaling style.   34 S. ikonnikovii
+ Bracts and bractlets spreading in fruit; stigma 3-4 × as long as style.   (16)
16 (15) Stem and branches densely long hispid; perianth (including wings) ca. 5 mm in diam. in fruit.   35 S. nepalensis
+ Stem and branches hispid or subglabrous; perianth (including wings) 7-10 mm in diam. in fruit.   36 S. tragus
17 (1) Herbs annual.   (18)
+ Shrubs, subshrubs, or annual herbs.   (27)
18 (17) Leaves opposite, apex mucronate; seed vertical.   19 S. brachiata
+ Leaves alternate, apex obtuse, not mucronate; seed horizontal.   (19)
19 (18) Leaves clavate; utricle berrylike; style obscure, stigmas very short.   12 S. foliosa
+ Leaves not clavate; utricle not berrylike; style distinct, stigmas subulate or filiform.   (20)
20 (19) Plants densely furfuraceous and sparsely pilose; space present between wings of adjacent perianth segments in fruit.   11 S. implicata
+ Plants not furfuraceous, but pilose or tomentose; space not present between wings of adjacent perianth segments in fruit.   (21)
21 (20) Leaf base not decurrent; perianth (including wings) 5-10 mm in diam. in fruit.   20 S. affinis
+ Leaf base decurrent; perianth (including wings) 10-18 mm in diam. in fruit.   (22)
22 (21) Perianth segments glabrous.   (23)
+ Perianth segments hairy.   (24)
23 (22) Stigmas 3-4 × as long as style; perianth segments above wing apex reflexed, forming a star shape.   13 S. subcrassa
+ Stigmas 2-3 × as long as style; perianth segments above wing connivent, forming a cone.   14 S. heptapotamica
24 (22) Stigmas very short, 1/7-1/5 as long as style.   15 S. lanata
+ Stigmas longer, nearly equaling or 3-8 × as long as style.   (25)
25 (24) Stigmas nearly equaling style; plants covered with suberect, long hairs when young.   16 S. korshinskyi
+ Stigmas 3-8 × as long as style; plants with sinuous hairs.   (26)
26 (25) Anther appendage 1/10-1/8 as long as anther; perianth (including wings) 10-15 mm in diam. in fruit.   17 S. ferganica
+ Anther appendage ca. 1/2 as long as or nearly equaling anther; perianth (including wings) 15-18 mm in diam. in fruit.   18 S. sukaczevii
27 (17) Shrubs or subshrubs, glabrous; leaf base expanded, constricted above point of expansion, appearing petiole-like.   (28)
+ Subshrubs or annual herbs, hairy; leaf base not constricted and petiole-like.   (32)
28 (27) Perianth segments above wing membranous, slightly reflexed in fruit, together rosettelike; bractlets equaling or longer than perianth.   5 S. arbuscula
+ Perianth segments above wing leathery, not reflexed but embracing utricle, connivent, and together forming a cone in fruit; bractlets shorter than perianth.   (29)
29 (28) Leaves of older branches alternate; inflorescence paniculate.   7 S. junatovii
+ Leaves of older branches clustered at apex of dwarf branches; inflorescence spicate.   (30)
30 (29) Shrubs small; perianth (including wings) 8-14 mm in diam. in fruit, portion above wing together connivent and forming a cone.   (31)
+ Shrubs creeping; perianth (including wings) 5-7 mm in diam. in fruit, portion above wing tightly appressed to utricle, not forming a cone.   6 S. abrotanoides
31 (30) Bract base decurrent; bractlet margin membranous laterally, but apex herbaceous, acute; anther appendage apex pungent.   8 S. laricifolia
+ Bract base not decurrent; bractlet margin membranous throughout, apex obtuse; anther appendage apex obtuse.   9 S. arbusculiformis
32 (27) Subshrubs, densely covered with T-shaped hairs; globose, dwarf branches present.   10 S. passerina
+ Subshrubs or annual herbs, pilose; globose, dwarf branches absent.   (33)
33 (32) Subshrubs; leaves persistent.   (34)
+ Herbs annual; leaves usually deciduous in fruit.   (35)
34 (33) Perianth segments densely pilose.   1 S. orientalis
+ Perianth segments glabrous, except apex ciliate.   2 S. dshungarica
35 (33) Perianth segment margin ciliate; anthers ca. 0.5 mm; perianth (including wings) 5-7 mm in diam. in fruit.   3 S. micranthera
+ Perianth segment margin not ciliate, or only apex ciliate; anthers ca. 1 mm; perianth (including wings) 7-9 mm in diam. in fruit.   4 S. nitraria

  • List of lower taxa


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