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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Saxifragaceae | Saxifraga

4. Saxifraga sect. Ciliatae Haworth, Misc. Nat. 160. 1803.

山羊臭组 shan yang xiu zu

Hirculus Haworth.

Herbs mostly perennial, some possibly annual, biennial, or monocarpic perennial (suspected rather than demonstrated), forming erect individuals, cespitose clumps, cushions, or sprawling mats, lacking basal bulbils. Leaves alternate, very rarely opposite, petiolate or not; leaf blade herbaceous or carnose, lacking chalk glands and crystals, margin usually entire, occasionally toothed or lobed. Flowering stem usually leafy; inflorescence cymose or flower solitary. Flowers sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, 5-merous. Petals usually yellow or orange, occasionally white, pink, or red, sometimes spotted orange, red, or purple, very often with callosities. Filaments subulate to linear; pollen 3-nucleate, exine tectum finely striate. Carpels connate for most of placental region, dehiscing distally in fruit; ovary subsuperior to subinferior. Integuments 2.

About 175 species: Asia, Europe, North America, mainly in arctic and montane regions; 166 species (112 endemic) in China.

1 At least proximal stem nodes and petiole bases with brown, crisped, villous hairs (mostly eglandular).    
+ Stem nodes with straight, glandular hairs, glands brown or black.   (4)
2 Leaves often glaucous, with prominent, submarginal vein running from proximal to distal ends; basal or proximal leaves glandular pilose abaxially, ± glabrous adaxially   Key 5
+ Leaves not glaucous, with veins set in from, and none obviously associated with, margin; leaf pubescence variable.   (3)
3 (2) Pedicels with short, glandular hairs, glands brown or black, occasionally present together with brown, long, crisped, villous hairs, or glabrous   Key 6
+ Pedicels with brown, long, crisped, villous hairs   Key 3
4 (1) Rosette leaves producing axillary, filiform stolons   Key 1
+ Rosette leaves, if any, not producing axillary stolons.   (5)
5 (4) Leaves often shiny, leathery; leaf buds produced in axils of cauline leaves, sometimes developing into short, sterile shoots; petals white or yellow   Key 2
+ Leaves not shiny, carnose; long, sterile shoots sometimes arising from axils of basal leaves; petals yellow.   (6)
6 (5) Plants with branched stem, forming mats or cushions of leafy shoots, or simple with a single stem, but in either case without a well-defined, basal leaf rosette; inflorescence 1(or 2-5)-flowered   Key 7
+ Plants forming well-defined basal leaf rosettes at anthesis; inflorescence usually several flowered   Key 4

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