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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Moraceae | Ficus

5. Ficus subgen. Sycidium (Miquel) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 3: 289. 1867.

糙叶榕亚属 cao ye rong ya shu

Ficus sect. Sycidium Miquel, London J. Bot. 7: 228. 1848.

Trees, shrubs, or climbers, terrestrial or initially epiphytic; dioecious. Creeping branches with adventitious roots. Stipules semiamplexicaul to lateral, less frequently fully amplexicaul. Leaves spirally arranged, distichous, or opposite; leaf blade often asymmetric, margin often dentate to sometimes lobed; wax glands on abaxial surface, in axils of one or both main basal veins, occasionally on midvein. Figs usually axillary below leaves or variously cauliflorous, interfloral bracts absent, internal bristles often present, apical pore usually with many upper bracts visible; peduncle often with scattered bracts; lateral bracts often present. Male flowers: around apical pore; stamen 1(or 2); pistillode present. Female flowers: stigma simple, truncate. Fruit an achene or drupelet.

About 110 species: from Africa through Asia to Australia and the Pacific Islands; 13 species (one endemic) in China.

Members of this subgenus are pollinated by fig wasps belonging to the genera Kradibia and Liporrapalum.

1 Leaves opposite to subopposite.   76 F. cumingii
+ Leaves alternate.   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade 16-28 cm; stipules 1.5-3.5 cm.   (3)
+ Leaf blade 3-16(-25) cm; stipules 0.5-2 cm.   (4)
3 (2) Stipules red, 2-3.5 cm; leaf blade hairy, base very asymmetric; figs on pendulous, eventually prostrate, leafless branchlets, ± underground at maturity.   77 F. semicordata
+ Stipules yellow and white, 1.5-2.5 cm; leaf blade glabrous, base not as above; figs axillary on normal leafy shoots.   83 F. virgata
4 (2) Figs clustered at base of main stem, on specialized leafless shortly tuberculate branchlets, or on pendulous, eventually prostrate, leafless branchlets, ± underground at maturity.   (5)
+ Figs axillary on normal leafy shoots (F. heterophylla and F. subulata sometimes on older leafless shoots).   (6)
5 (4) Figs clustered at base of old stem or on specialized leafless shortly tuberculate branchlets; peduncle 2-4 cm.   73 F. tsiangii
+ Figs on pendulous, eventually prostrate, leafless branchlets, ± underground at maturity; peduncle 0.8-1 cm.   78 F. prostrata
6 (4) Figs sessile to subsessile (sometimes pedunculate in F. subulata).   (7)
+ Figs pedunculate.   (9)
7 (6) Leaf blade apex obtuse to acute; figs with stone cells.   82 F. tinctoria
+ Leaf blade apex acute, caudate, or acuminate; figs without stone cells.   (8)
8 (7) Male plants erect; figs 2-5(-9) mm in diam., glabrous; leaf blade papery; veins abaxially inconspicuous.   84 F. subulata
+ Male plants climbing; figs 8-10 mm in diam., with short thick hairs; leaf blade ± leathery; veins abaxially conspicuous.   85 F. heteropleura
9 (6) Figs ovoid, with lateral bracts.   80 F. cyrtophylla
+ Figs globose to pear-shaped, without lateral bracts.   (10)
10 (9) Stems and leaves with barbed hairs; leaf blade obovate-falcate.   81 F. praetermissa
+ Stems and leaves with straight hairs; leaf blade not obovate-falcate.   (11)
11 (10) Shrub, often prostrate; leaves distichous, juvenile leaves often pinnately lobed; figs 1-2 cm in diam.   79 F. heterophylla
+ Small tree; leaves spirally arranged, always entire; figs 0.5-1.2 cm in diam.   (12)
12 (11) Peduncle 0.4-0.8 cm; figs 0.5-0.6 cm in diam.   75 F. ampelos
+ Peduncle (0.5-)0.7-2.4 cm; figs 0.8-1.2 cm in diam.   74 F. irisana

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