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3. Saussurea Subg. Theodorea Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. 1818: 168. 1818.

附片风毛菊亚属 fu pian feng mao ju ya shu

Theodorea (Cassini) Cassini.

Herbs, biennial or perennial. Stems usually tall, many branched, leafy. Capitula usually numerous to very numerous, in a corymbiform or paniculiform synflorescence. Phyllaries imbricate, margin sometimes dentate, all or only middle and inner phyllaries with colored and membranous or green and herbaceous apical appendage; appendage sometimes inconspicuous or apex spiniform-acuminate. Receptacle with subulate or filiform bristles. Corolla limb deeply cleft (more than 2/3-4/5), usually gland-dotted. Achene smooth or ribbed, sometimes wrinkled, glabrous or gland-dotted, without a conspicuous apical crown. Pappus white, straw-colored, or pale brown, always in 2 rows; outer bristles scabrid or rarely plumose.

Twenty species: China, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; Europe; 17 species (seven endemic) in China.

1 Phyllaries without a conspicuous appendage, apex cartilaginous, spiniform, and usually reflexed   (2)
+ Phyllaries with a ± widened, membranous, or callose-serrulate appendage, apex not spiniform but sometimes needlelike or ± long acuminate   (3)
2 (1) Capitula numerous; plants biennial or perennial, without woody caudex.   66 S. malitiosa
+ Capitulum solitary; plants perennial, with a stout woody caudex.   67 S. jurineoides
3 (1) Phyllaries or at least inner ones with a small herbaceous callose-serrulate apical appendage   (4)
+ Phyllaries or at least inner ones with a purple membranous apically widened but sometimes inconspicuous appendage   (6)
4 (3) Leaf blade undivided, margin entire.   72 S. chinnampoensis
+ Leaf blade pinnatisect, pinnately lobed, or margin sinuate-lobate   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade adaxially green, sparsely pubescent, abaxially pale grayish green, sparsely arachnoid; inner phyllaries apically not barbellate.   70 S. nematolepis
+ Leaf blade green, concolorous, sparsely strigose; inner phyllaries apically densely barbellate.   71 S. ladyginii
6 (3) Outer phyllaries with an apical cartilaginous mucro   (7)
+ Outer phyllaries without an apical cartilaginous mucro   (11)
7 (6) Plants biennial.   68 S. pseudomalitiosa
+ Plants perennial   (8)
8 (7) Stems wingless or wing inconspicuous.   62 S. runcinata
+ Stems conspicuously winged   (9)
9 (8) Basal leaves bipinnately parted; apex of outer phyllaries reflexed.   63 S. laciniata
+ Basal leaves pinnately parted to undivided; apex of outer phyllaries not or barely reflexed   (10)
10 (9) Basal leaves lyrate-pinnately lobed to undivided and with sinuate-dentate or subentire margin.   64 S. grubovii
+ Basal leaves pinnately lobed or pinnately parted.   65 S. alata
11 (6) Outer phyllaries with a long needlelike recurved apex.   60 S. robusta
+ Outer phyllaries without a needlelike apex   (12)
12 (11) Involucre cylindric, narrowly obconic, or narrowly campanulate; outer phyllaries without a membranous appendage   (13)
+ Involucre globose, ovoid, or campanulate; all phyllaries usually with a membranous appendage   (15)
13 (12) Stem usually wingless.   56 S. amara
+ Stem winged   (14)
14 (13) Middle and upper stem leaves ovate, base amplexicaul, margin entire and undivided.   57 S. chingiana
+ Middle and upper stem leaves narrowly elliptic to linear, base not amplexicaul, margin pinnately lobed or dentate.   61 S. prostrata
15 (12) Involucre globose, 10-15 mm in diam.; phyllary appendages showy, 2-3 mm wide, usually overlapping.   59 S. pulchella
+ Involucre campanulate, 4-10 mm in diam.; phyllary appendages not showy, 1-2 mm wide, not overlapping   (16)
16 (15) Stem usually wingless; involucre cylindric to narrowly campanulate; outer phyllaries sometimes without an appendage.   58 S. japonica
+ Stem narrowly winged; outer phyllaries with an appendage   (17)
17 (16) Involucre tubular to narrowly campanulate, 4-6 mm in diam.; capitula numerous in a large corymbiform synflorescence.   58 S. japonica
+ Involucre campanulate, 8-10 mm in diam.; capitula solitary or few at branch ends.   69 S. pinnatidentata

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