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Pakistan | Family List | Geraniaceae

1. Geranium L., Sp. Pl. 676. 1753. & Gen. Pl. ed. 5:832.1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 1:869.1867: Edgew. & Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:428.1874; R. Knuth., Geraniaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. Heft. 53 (iv. 129):43.1912; Webb in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 2:193.1968; Schonbeck-Temesy in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 69:1.1970; Zohary, Fl. Palest. 2:227.1972.


Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate, variously divided. Peduncles (1-) 2-flowered. Flowers often showy, regular, usually 5-merous. Petals alternating with 5 nectiferous glands. Stamens (5-) 10, staminodes occasional. Carpels usually 5, adnate, separating septifragally from the central axis at maturity. Ovary 5-lobed. Fruit schizocarpic, of 5 mericarps which remain attached to an elastically coiling stylar axis upwards; mericarps without apical pits.

A genus of c. 400 species, mainly distributed in the temperate zone of N. Hemisphere, but also in the tropics. Represented in Pakistan by 22 species. The large flowered perennials are difficult to key out satisfactorily unless there is ample information on the nature of the underground parts, flower colour, shape and size of the leaves and the fruits. In the key that follows, I have used the following terminology: segments for primary division of leaves; lobes for secondary division. The sepal length excludes the awn. The beak length (in fruit) excludes the styles.

Species indet. or little known.

21. Geranium Sp.

Hispar Vy., glacier, left bank, Turmun Makerum, 11-11,500', R.S. Russell 1223 (BM).

Rhizome horizontal, stem ascending, slender. Leaves suborbicular with 7 segments. Segments not exceeding 24 mm in length, lobes blunt, obtuse, petiole of lower cauline leaves long and slender, lamina pilose; stipule 8 mm long. Peduncle 11.5 cm long, 2-flowered; glandular hairy; bract lanceolate, largest 7 mm long. Flowers 2, sessile. Petal base ciliate.

The plant specimen resembles in facies Geranium collinum but has very short blunt and obtuse leaf segment lobes and flowers that are almost sessile. More plant material of this Geranium species is required for further study.

Geranium pinetophilum R. Knuth. Notizbl. 14.352.1939.

Type: Astor Dist. near Nanga Parbat, Rakhiot Valley, Troll 7637 (B).

Knuth’s material was destroyed in the Berlin fire. The species appears to be related to Geranium pretense ssp. stewartianum but differs in the lighter coloured flower, which Knuth states to be pink-white with dark nerves. May also be allied to Geranium himalayense.

1 Annuals, rarely biennials or perennials, with flowers up to 1 cm broad   (2)
+ Perennials with flowers (1.5)-2-4 cm broad   (9)
2 (1) Calyx angled, constricted at the apex; glabrous. Pedicel unilaterally hirsute   1 Geranium lucidum
+ Calyx not angled or constricted at the apex. Pedicel uniformly pubescent or subglandular   (3)
3 (2) Stem erect. Leaves trisect, 3-5-gonal into pinnatipartite segments. Sepals awn c. 2 mm long   2 Geranium robertianum
+ Stem straggling or procumbent. Leaves sub orbicular to reniform, lobes crenate or not. Sepal awn 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long   (4)
4 (3) Petals clearly exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glabrous to puberulous   (5)
+ Petals equal to or barely exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glandular pubescent or appressed pubescent   (6)
5 (4) Mericarps 1.5-2 mm long, transversely rugose, with shallow and glabrous ridges   3 Geranium ocellatum
+ Mericarps 3 mm long, deep furrowed, puberulous on the outer ridge   4 Geranium mascatense
6 (4) Leaves orbicular-reniform, crenate. Seeds prominently reticulate   5 Geranium rotundifolium
+ Leaves palmatifid or -partite into 3-7-segments   (7)
7 (6) Sepals 1.5-3 mm long. Beak 6-8 mm long   6 Geranium pusillum
+ Sepals 5-6 mm long. Beak 10-13 mm long   (8)
8 (7) Leaf segments narrow rhomboid-acute. Inflorescence ± diffuse. Peduncle usually 1 flowered. Sepal awn 1-2 mm   7 Geranium sibiricum
+ Leaf segments broad rhomboid-obtuse-acute. Inflorescence not diffuse. Peduncle usually 2-flowered. Sepal awn up to 1 mm   8 Geranium nepalense
9 (1) Rhizome tuberous. Petals emarginate-retuse   (10)
+ Rhizome elongated. Petals obtuse, sometimes retuse   (11)
10 (9) Plants 30-60 cm tall. Petals 1.3-1.5 cm long. Filaments dense long ciliate. Beak c. 2.5 cm long   9 Geranium tuberaria
+ Plants up to 20 (-25) cm tall. Petals 8-11 mm long. Filaments pubescent. Beak c. 1.2 cm long   10 Geranium charlesii
11 (9) Aerial stem much reduced or absent   15 Geranium regellii
+ Aerial stem (s) well developed, up to 5 in number   (12)
12 (11) Stipules usually 10-20 mm long, elliptic-obtuse or oblong   11 Geranium wallichianum
+ Stipules 2-14 mm long, lanceolate to lanceolate-subulate   (13)
13 (12) Upper 2/3rd of filaments dense villous. Stigmas c. 5 mm long   12 Geranium lambertii
+ Basal part of filaments ciliate, sometimes pubescent. Stigmas up to 4 mm long   (14)
14 (13) Leaf segment lobes 6-11 (-13), acutish to acuminate. Flowers dark blue-purple   16 Geranium pratense ssp. stewartianum
+ Leaf segment lobes 5-7 (-9), obtuse to acute. Flowers white, pink, lilac, mauve or pink purple   (15)
15 (14) Stem erect-ascending, rhizome stout. Pedicel short, 9-30 mm long, deflexed in fruit   17 Geranium himalayense
+ Stem diffuse-ascending. Rhizome ± slender. Pedicels long, (8-) 12-47 (-54) mm, spreading recurved   (16)
16 (15) Leaves much dissected, the segments narrow, 4-5 mm broad, small   18 Geranium pamiricum
+ Leaves not dissected deeply, the segments more than 5 mm broad   (17)
17 (16) Leaf segment lobes short and bluntly obtuse. Peduncle 2-flowered; mature flowers ± sessile   21 Geranium Sp.
+ Leaf segment lobes acute to obtuse. Peduncle with both flowers pedicellate   (18)
18 (17) Petal base pubescent on the adaxial surface   20 Geranium swatense
+ Petal base ciliate   (19)
19 (18) Leaves orbicular-angled, 5-7-palmati-partite. Flowers lilac - rose to sometimes white. Sepal awn 1-2 mm long. Seed c. 2.5 mm long   19 Geranium collinum
+ Leaves 5-angled. Flowers pink. Sepal awn 2-4 mm. Seed ± 3 mm long   (20)
20 (19) Pedicels and peduncles with stiff erect glandular hairs. Leaves not membranous. Stipules often 2-fid   13 Geranium rubifolium
+ Pedicels and peduncles appressed pubescent (rarely sparse glandular). Leaves membranous. Stipules rarely 2-fid   14 Geranium rectum

  • List of lower taxa


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