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Pakistan | Family List | Orobanchaceae

Orobanche Linn., Sp. Pl. 2:632. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5:281.1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4:502.1879; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:324.1884; Beck, Monog. Orob. 73. 1890; in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV. 161:44. 1930; R.A. Graham in Turrill & Milne-Redhead, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., (Orobanchaceae) 3.1957; Cooke, Fl. Bomb. Pres. (rep. ed.) 2:386.1958; Helen Schiman-Czeika in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 5:2.1964.

  • Kopsia Dum.
  • Phelipaea Desf.

    Scapigerous herbs with terminal, bracteate, spicate inflorescence, glandular-pubescent. Bracts like scale leaves but usually somewhat smaller. Bracteoles, if present, 2, about as long as the calyx, free, rarely adnate to calyx-tube. Calyx campanulate, 4(-5)-toothed, or split into two lateral segments, each entire or 2-toothed, shorter than the corolla. Corolla campanulate, infundibuliform to almost tubulose, bilabiate, upper lip ± 2-lobed, often erect; lower lip 3-lobed, with middle lobe often somewhat larger than the lateral ones. Stamens didynamous, included, inserted about the middle or low down the corolla tube; anthers cells equal, often minutely mucronate at base. Ovary 1-celled. Capsules ovoid, oblong to spheroid, beaked by persistent style base, many seeded, sometimes valves gaping above; seeds very small, brownish.

    About 100 species, cosmopolitan but mostly Asian; represented here by about 20 species.

    ‘Broomrapes’ can be quite damaging to crops, such as tobacco, mustard, cucurbits etc. but so far this has not been a serious problem.

    Species with doubtful occurrence in the area.

    1. Orobanche ramose Linn. Sp. Pl. 633.1753.

    This is reported to be present in the Himalayas by some authors but I have seen no authentic specimen of this species from our area. See note under Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.

    2. Orobanche lavandulacea Reichenb., Pl. Grit. 7:48. fig. 935.1829.

    Stocks 1087 (K) has been cited by Boissier (l.c. 497) under Phelipaea lavandulacea (Reichneb.) Reut. from Baluchistan, and on this basis Burkill (l.c. 76) and R.R. Stewart (l.c. 672) included it for Pakistan, mentioning ‘Stocks teste Boissier’. However, Stewart included Stocks 1087 (K) under Orobanche orientalis Beck, a different species, fairly common in Baluchistan. This, therefore, needs confirmation as to the correct identity of Stocks 1087 from Baluchistan, because this seems to be the only cited specimen for this species from Baluchistan. I have seen no authentic specimen of this species from Pakistan. This differs from Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. by its smaller flowers, with narrow tubulose corolla having distinct, short, ovate lobes, plicate between the lobes of the lower lip, yellowish stigmas and elongated spikes. See note under Orobanche orientalis Beck also.

    1 Bracteoles present, free, rarely adnate to calyx-tube. Valve of fruit gaping or free above (Sect. Trionychon)   (2)
    + Bracteoles absent. Capsule valves coherent above (Sect. Orobanche [ = Osproleon Wallr.])   (9)
    2 (1) Bracts equal or longer than calyx   (3)
    + Bracts shorter than calyx   (4)
    3 (2) Flowers 12-17 mm long. Bracts c. as long as the corolla but calyx only c. half as long   Orobanche psila
    + Flowers 18-25 mm long. Bracts and calyx-equally long, shorter than corolla   Orobanche caesia
    4 (2) Calyx teeth longer than tube or united segment base   (5)
    + Calyx teeth shorter than tube or united segment base   (8)
    5 (4) Bracteoles ± long adnate to the calyx-tube   Orobanche orientalis
    + Bracteoles free form calyx   (6)
    6 (5) Corolla usually c. 25 mm or more long. Calyx segments acute (not filiform)   Orobanche hirtiflora
    + Corolla 17.20 mm long (rarely more in O. coelestis). Calyx segments subulate-produced to filiform   (7)
    7 (6) Corolla 20 (-23) mm long, violaceous, tubulose, hardly inflated below; limb hardly broader than tube, lobes obtuse, short   Orobanche coelestis
    + Corolla 17-18 (-20) mm long, pale-blue, constricted below the middle, inflated below; limb conspicuously broader than tube with sharply acute lobes   Orobanche oxyloba
    8 (4) Stem branched. Flowers blue   Orobanche aegyptiaca
    + Stem simple, somewhat stout. Flowers lilac or violet   Orobanche purpurea
    9 (1) Corolla ±campanulate, hardly constricted at the insertion point of stamens on the tube, mostly not blue (rarely violaceous or bluish)   (10)
    + Corolla ± infundibuliform (rarely almost tubulose), often blue (rarely yellowish or brownish)   (13)
    10 (9) Calyx segments entire (rarely shortly and unequally 2-dentate above   (11)
    + Calyx tube 4-dentate or segments 2-dentate (sometimes entire or tube 5-dentate dissected posteriorly only)   (12)
    11 (10) Corolla 15-20 (-23) mm long, orange brown, glandular-pubescent. Bracts ± as long as the corolla   Orobanche alba
    + Corolla more than 20 mm long, limb bluish, glabrous. Bracts c. half as long as the corolla   (18)
    12 (10) Corolla 15-20 (-23) mm long, pale yellowish or dingy. Calyx segments deeply dissected with long teeth. Stigma brownish   Orobanche amethystea
    + Corolla 25-30 (-35 mm long, reddish-brown with tube straw-coloured or yellowish. Calyx segments oblong subovate, shortly toothed above. Stigma purplish   Orobanche vulgaris
    13 (9) Corolla usually 25-40 mm long   (14)
    + Corolla usually up to 20 mm long   (16)
    14 (13) Bracts and calyx almost equaling the corolla-tube. Calyx segments deeply dissected with teeth longer than tube   Orobanche kotschyi
    + Bracts and calyx c. half as long as the corolla-tube. Calyx teeth longer than tube   (15)
    15 (14) Plants papillose; young inflorescence capitate. Corolla whitish with bluish limb, suberect, campanulately expanded above. Stigma yellow.   Orobanche stocksii
    + Plants subglabrous; young inflorescence not capitate, somewhat lax. Corolla violaceous-blue, ±curved form below the middle, infundibuliformly expanded above. Stigma purplish   Orobanche amoena
    16 (13) Flowers yellowish or brownish   (17)
    + Flowers, atleast the limbs, bluish or violet, (rarely brownish)   (18)
    17 (16) Calyx tube almost equally 5-toothed. Corolla pale brown, lobes rounded; filaments pubescent below   Orobanche kashmirica
    + Calyx 2-segmented, each segment 2-toothed. Corolla yellow, lobes crenulate; filaments and anthers glabrous   Orobanche solmsii
    18 (16) Flowers less than 20 mm long, conspicuously curved, younger ones concealed by long bracts Corolla tubulose with short, inconspicuous lobes   Orobanche cernua
    + Flowers more than 20 mm long, not conspicuously curved, and younger ones not concealed by the bracts. Corolla lobes broad and deeply blue-violet   Orobanche hansii

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