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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 5 | Polygonaceae | Eriogonum

1a. Eriogonum Michaux subg. Eucycla (Nuttall) Kuntze in T. E. von Post and O. Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan. 204. 1903.

Eucycla Nuttall, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4: 16. 1848

Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, sometimes nearly arborescent, perennial, glabrous or pubescent, rarely glandular; taproot woody. Stems matted to spreading, decumbent, or erect, infrequently absent, with or without persistent leaf bases, glabrous or variously pubescent or glandular; caudex stems woody, tightly compact to spreading and at or just below surface, or spreading to erect and above surface; aerial flowering stems arising at nodes of caudex branches, at distal nodes of aerial branches, or directly from root, prostrate or decumbent to erect, slender to stout and usually solid, infrequently slightly to distinctly fistulose and hollow. Leaves basal, sometimes in rosettes, sometimes sheathing up stems, cauline, or basal and cauline, 1 per node or fasciculate on flowering stems, at tips of dwarf branches, or on exposed woody caudices, usually persistent, occasionally persistent through growing season or longer, rarely quickly deciduous; blade glabrous or floccose to tomentose, occasionally also glandular. Inflorescences cymose, cymose-umbellate, umbellate, virgate, or racemose, mostly spreading and open to diffuse, sometimes dense, congested, or compact, sometimes reduced and in subumbellate, subcapitate, or capitate heads or reduced to a single terminal involucre; branches open to diffuse, spreading to erect, usually dichotomously branched except for initial trichotomous node, round and smooth, rarely grooved, angled, or ridged, tomentose to floccose or glabrous, occasionally lanate or glandular, rarely scabrellous; bracts usually 3, connate basally, usually scalelike, sometimes semileaflike or leaflike. Peduncles absent or erect, usually stout. Involucres 1-8 or more per cluster, narrowly turbinate to campanulate; teeth (3-)5-6(-10), erect or occasionally spreading, apex acute to obtuse or rounded. Flowers bisexual or, infrequently, unisexual, not attenuate at base, without stipelike base (except for slightly winged stipelike bases in E. saxatile and E. crocatum); perianth various shades of white, yellow, pink, or red, glabrous, glandular, or variously pubescent abaxially, usually glabrous adaxially except for minute glands and a few scattered hairs; tepals connate only basally or in proximal 2, monomorphic or dimorphic; stamens usually exserted, sometimes included; filaments variously pubescent but usually pilose proximally, infrequently glabrous. Achenes light to dark brown, not winged (but nearly so in E. saxatile), 3-gonous, glabrous, occasionally with minutely papillate beak. Seeds: embryo curved.

Species 107 (101 in the flora): w North America (including nw Mexico), mainly arid regions.

Species of subg. Eucycla not accounted for in this treatment are: Eriogonum encelioides Reveal & C. A. Hanson, E. fastigiatum Parry, E. molle Greene, E. orcuttianum S. Watson, E. pondii Greene, and E. zapatoense Moran. All are native to Baja California, Mexico.

The keys to species for subg. Eucycla are broken into geographic regions to aid in identification. They are: California (key 1, p. 225); British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (key 2, p. 228); Nevada and Utah (key 3, p. 231); Arizona and New Mexico (key 4, p. 237); Alberta, Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming (key 5, p. 239); and Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Great Plains states, and Texas (key 6, p. 242).

Key 1—California

1 Flowers with winged stipelike bases   (2)
+ Flowers without stipelike bases   (3)
2 (1) Perianths white to rose or yellowish; inflorescences cymose, 10-25 × 5-12 cm; achenes 3.5-4 mm; s Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, desert ranges to east   100 Eriogonum saxatile
+ Perianths bright yellow; inflorescences cymose-umbellate, 0.5-3 × 3-8 cm; achenes 2.5-3 mm; Santa Monica Mountains, Ventura County   101 Eriogonum crocatum
3 (1) Plants forming cespitose or pulvinate mats; inflorescences capitate, or if racemose, subumbellate, cymose, or cymose-umbellate, then plants 0.1-1 dm   (4)
+ Plants shrubs to subshrubs or spreading to erect perennials, not cespitose or matted; inflorescences branched or, if capitate, plants 1-5 dm   (13)
4 (3) Inflorescences cymose, racemose, subumbellate, cymose-umbellate, or virgate, not capitate   (5)
+ Inflorescences capitate, rarely umbellate   (7)
5 (4) Perianths glandular-hairy, whitish to reddish; flowering stems glandular-puberulent; Kern and Tulare counties   54 Eriogonum breedlovei
+ Perianths glabrous, white to pink or rose, or yellowish with reddish spot; flowering stems not glandular; Inyo and Tulare counties   (6)
6 (5) Flowers (1.5-)2-2.5 mm; tepals monomorphic; involucres 0.8-1.3 mm; s Sierra Nevada, Olancha Peak   72 Eriogonum wrightii (in part)
+ Flowers 3-4 mm; tepals dimorphic, outer globose; involucres 1.5-2 mm; Cottonwood, Last Chance, and Panamint mountains   99 Eriogonum gilmanii (in part)
7 (4) Tepals dimorphic, outer often 2 times as wide as inner; scapes floccose to tomentose or lanate or nearly glabrous; common in e and s California   98 Eriogonum ovalifolium
+ Tepals monomorphic, or if somewhat dimorphic, flowers, involucres, and scapes glandular-pubescent; ec and ne California   (8)
8 (7) Perianths yellow or ochroleucous to reddish yellow, not white   (9)
+ Perianths white to rose or pink, not yellow or ochroleucous (except sometimes yellow in E. shockleyi)   (11)
9 (8) Involucres glandular or glandular-hairy; scapes glandular; Sierra Nevada from Placer County to Fresno County and in desert ranges of Inyo and Mono counties, usually above 2500 m   53 Eriogonum rosense
+ Involucres glabrous or floccose, occasionally glandular; scapes glabrous or glandular; Sierra Nevada and Great Basin; often below 1900 m   (10)
10 (9) Leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic or ovate to obovate, 1-2 × 0.5-1(-1.5) cm; scapes 0.5-1.5(-2) dm, glandular at least proximal to inflorescence; involucres floccose abaxially; clay soils, Lassen County   62 Eriogonum ochrocephalum
+ Leaf blades oblanceolate to spatulate, elliptic or ovate, 0.4-0.8(-1) × 0.15-0.4(-0.6) cm; scapes 0.2-0.8 dm, glabrous; involucres glabrous or sparsely floccose; volcanic soils, Lassen and Modoc counties   47 Eriogonum prociduum
11 (8) Involucres glandular or pubescent to glandular-puberulent, membranous; c Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, Inyo and Mono counties, 3000-3900 m   59 Eriogonum gracilipes
+ Involucres glabrous or tomentose, rigid; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, and desert ranges to the east from Mono County s to Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, typically below 3000 m   (12)
12 (11) Perianths and achenes pubescent; Last Chance Range, Inyo and Mono counties   68 Eriogonum shockleyi
+ Perianths and achenes glabrous; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, and desert ranges to the east from Mono County s to Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties   73 Eriogonum kennedyi
13 (3) Involucres 2-10 or more per node or in heads   (14)
+ Involucres 1 per node   (24)
14 (13) Tepals distinctly dimorphic, those of outer whorl to 2 times as wide as those of inner whorl   (15)
+ Tepals essentially monomorphic, those of outer whorl ca. as wide as those of inner whorl   (16)
15 (14) Inflorescences cymose-umbellate or capitate; outer tepals globose; Inyo County   99 Eriogonum gilmanii (in part)
+ Inflorescences umbellate-cymose to cymose; outer tepals not globose; PlumasCounty n to Siskiyou and Modoc counties   96 Eriogonum strictum
16 (14) Plants herbaceous or woody at base   (17)
+ Plants usually shrubs   (20)
17 (16) Leaf blades lanceolate to lance-ovate, 4-15(-25) cm, villous and green on both surfaces; Sierra Nevada and Great Basin region, Tulare and Mono counties n   94 Eriogonum elatum
+ Leaf blades oblanceolate to oblong-ovate, ovate, or elliptic, usually 2-6 cm, tomentose abaxially, tomentose or floccose to subglabrous, or glabrous adaxially; widespread   (18)
18 (17) Involucres (4-)5-7 × 3-8(-10) mm; flowering stems and inflorescence branches glabrous, rarely floccose; inflorescences subcapitate to cymose; leaf blades densely tomentose abaxially, greenish and glabrate adaxially; plants forming large mats; Channel Islands   93 Eriogonum grande
+ Involucres (2.5-)3-5(-7) × (1.5-)2-4 mm; flowering stems and inflorescence branches glabrous, floccose, or tomentose; inflorescences capitate to umbellate or cymose; leaf blades variously lanate to tomentose on both surfaces or tomentose to floccose or glabrous adaxially; plants erect, occasionally forming large mats; mainland   (19)
19 (18) Involucres and flowering stems glabrous or, if tomentose, plants not along the immediate coast; leaf blades variously lanate to tomentose on both surfaces or tomentose, floccose, or glabrous adaxially; plants mostly erect, not forming dense mats; widespread   91 Eriogonum nudum (in part)
+ Involucres and flowering stems tomentose to floccose, rarely glabrous; inflorescences capitate, umbellate, or cymose; leaf blades whitish-lanate to tawny-tomentose on both surfaces, or tomentose to floccose or glabrous and green adaxially; plants forming dense mats; cliffs and bluffs along immediate coast from San Luis Obispo County n   92 Eriogonum latifolium
20 (16) Leaf blades narrowly linear or nearly so to oblanceolate, shorter than 2 cm and leaves usually strongly fasciculate; s coastal and desert ranges   80 Eriogonum fasciculatum
+ Leaf blades linear-oblong to orbiculate or, if linear, longer than 2 cm and leaves not fasciculate; insular or coastal mesas and foothills   (21)
21 (20) Perianths glabrous; coastal and near-coast areas, Monterey County s to Los Angeles County   82 Eriogonum parvifolium
+ Perianths villous; coastal Santa Barbara s to Los Angeles County and insular   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blades linear to narrowly oblong, 2-4(-5) cm, white-tomentose abaxially, cinereous to glabrate adaxially, margins revolute; Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and Anacapa islands   84 Eriogonum arborescens
+ Leaf blades ovate or oblong-ovate to ovate or lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 1.5-10 cm, white-tomentulose or tomentose on both surfaces, margins not revolute; coastal regions, Santa Barbara s to Los Angeles County and on Santa Rosa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara islands   (23)
23 (22) Leaf blades ovate, 1.5-3 × 1-2.5(-3) cm, white-tomentulose; inflorescences congested, capitate; involucres narrowly turbinate; coastal regions, Santa Barbara s to Los Angeles County, and on Santa Rosa islands   81 Eriogonum cinereum
+ Leaf blades oblong-ovate to ovate or lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 2-7(-10) × 1-5 cm, white-tomentose; inflorescences often open, cymose; involucres campanulate; Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara islands   83 Eriogonum giganteum
24 (13) Involucres disposed in elongate racemes at tips of inflorescence branches   (25)
+ Involucres disposed at forks of branching system   (31)
25 (24) Involucres usually 6-7 mm; plants perennial herbs, (6-)12-18 dm; s Coast Ranges and Transverse Ranges south   71 Eriogonum elongatum
+ Involucres (0.8-)1-6 mm; plants shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, (1-)1.5-5 dm; widespread   (26)
26 (25) Plants shrubs; Great Basin region, Mono and n Inyo counties   5 Eriogonum nummulare
+ Plants subshrubs or herbs; widespread   (27)
27 (26) Plants suffrutescent and much-branched basally; leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic, 0.1-1 cm wide, margins often revolute   (28)
+ Plants not suffrutescent basally; leaf blades rounded to broadly ovate, (0.3-)1-3.5(-4) cm wide, margins not revolute   (29)
28 (27) Involucres 0.7-4 mm; flowers 2-4 mm; perianth usually white to pink; widespread   72 Eriogonum wrightii (in part)
+ Involucres (4-)5-6 mm; flowers usually 4-5 mm; perianth ochroleucous to rose; Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey County   74 Eriogonum butterworthianum
29 (27) Leaf blades round, (0.3-)0.5-1.5 × (0.3-)1-1.5 cm; petioles 1-2 cm; involucres campanulate; Inyo Mountains and Panamint and Coso ranges, Inyo County   77 Eriogonum mensicola
+ Leaf blades elliptic, oblong, ovate, or obovate, 1.5-4.5(-5) × 1-3.5(-4) cm; petioles 1-7 cm; involucres turbinate or turbinate-campanulate; Inyo and White mountains, Mono and Inyo counties s to New York Mountains, San Bernardino County   (30)
30 (29) Leaf blades elliptic to oblong, (2-)2.5-4.5(-5) × 1.5-3.5(-4) cm; petioles (2-)3-7 cm; involucres turbinate-campanulate, 3-4 × 3-4 mm; White and Inyo mountains, Mono and Inyo counties   75 Eriogonum rupinum
+ Leaf blades elliptic to ovate or obovate, 1.5-4 × 1-2.5 cm; petioles 1-5 cm; involucres turbinate, 3-5 × 2-4 mm; White and Inyo mountains south to New York mountains   76 Eriogonum panamintense
31 (24) Plants herbaceous perennials   (32)
+ Plants subshrubs or shrubs   (33)
32 (31) Leaf blades round-ovate, 0.3-0.5(-1) × 0.3-0.5(-1) cm; Amador County   90 Eriogonum apricum
+ Leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic or ovate, 1-6 × (0.3-)1-4 cm; widespread   91 Eriogonum nudum (in part)
33 (31) Perianths pubescent   (34)
+ Perianths glabrous   (36)
34 (33) Flowers (2.5-)3-4(-4.5) mm; perianth greenish yellow to yellow; involucres 1.5-2.5(-3) mm, 4-toothed; leaf blades (0.3-)0.5-1.5(-3.5) cm; Imperial and San Diego counties   85 Eriogonum deserticola
+ Flowers 3-6(-7) mm; perianth white; involucres 2-5 mm, 5-8-toothed; leaf blades (0.7-)1.2-5 cm; Del Norte and Plumas counties   (35)
35 (34) Involucres 3.5-5 mm; Del Norte County   86 Eriogonum pendulum
+ Involucres 2-3 mm; Plumas County   87 Eriogonum spectabile
36 (33) Inflorescences usually compact, terminally cymose; involucres tomentose, floccose, or glabrous   (37)
+ Inflorescences divaricatedly branched panicles or cymes; involucres glabrous   (38)
37 (36) Plants erect to spreading subshrubs in montane places, shrubs at lower elevations, 0.2-15 dm; leaf blades (0.3-)1-3.5 cm, margins not revolute, or if so, plants distinctly shrubby; e and s California   1 Eriogonum microthecum
+ Plants spreading or matted subshrubs of desert mountains, 0.5-1.5 dm; leaf blades 0.4-0.6 cm, margins revolute; New York Mountains, San Bernardino County   15 Eriogonum thornei
38 (36) Outer tepals obovate to orbiculate; inflorescence branches green, dichotomous, ascending; mountain slopes, s Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, and desert ranges from Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties n to Monterey, San Benito, and Mono counties   88 Eriogonum heermannii
+ Outer tepals obovate; inflorescence branches grayish, mostly horizontal, tiered; desert valleys, Kern County s to e San Diego and eastward   89 Eriogonum plumatella

List of Keys


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