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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 5 | Polygonaceae | Eriogonum

1a. Eriogonum Michaux subg. Eucycla (Nuttall) Kuntze in T. E. von Post and O. Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan. 204. 1903.

Eucycla Nuttall, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4: 16. 1848

Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, sometimes nearly arborescent, perennial, glabrous or pubescent, rarely glandular; taproot woody. Stems matted to spreading, decumbent, or erect, infrequently absent, with or without persistent leaf bases, glabrous or variously pubescent or glandular; caudex stems woody, tightly compact to spreading and at or just below surface, or spreading to erect and above surface; aerial flowering stems arising at nodes of caudex branches, at distal nodes of aerial branches, or directly from root, prostrate or decumbent to erect, slender to stout and usually solid, infrequently slightly to distinctly fistulose and hollow. Leaves basal, sometimes in rosettes, sometimes sheathing up stems, cauline, or basal and cauline, 1 per node or fasciculate on flowering stems, at tips of dwarf branches, or on exposed woody caudices, usually persistent, occasionally persistent through growing season or longer, rarely quickly deciduous; blade glabrous or floccose to tomentose, occasionally also glandular. Inflorescences cymose, cymose-umbellate, umbellate, virgate, or racemose, mostly spreading and open to diffuse, sometimes dense, congested, or compact, sometimes reduced and in subumbellate, subcapitate, or capitate heads or reduced to a single terminal involucre; branches open to diffuse, spreading to erect, usually dichotomously branched except for initial trichotomous node, round and smooth, rarely grooved, angled, or ridged, tomentose to floccose or glabrous, occasionally lanate or glandular, rarely scabrellous; bracts usually 3, connate basally, usually scalelike, sometimes semileaflike or leaflike. Peduncles absent or erect, usually stout. Involucres 1-8 or more per cluster, narrowly turbinate to campanulate; teeth (3-)5-6(-10), erect or occasionally spreading, apex acute to obtuse or rounded. Flowers bisexual or, infrequently, unisexual, not attenuate at base, without stipelike base (except for slightly winged stipelike bases in E. saxatile and E. crocatum); perianth various shades of white, yellow, pink, or red, glabrous, glandular, or variously pubescent abaxially, usually glabrous adaxially except for minute glands and a few scattered hairs; tepals connate only basally or in proximal 2, monomorphic or dimorphic; stamens usually exserted, sometimes included; filaments variously pubescent but usually pilose proximally, infrequently glabrous. Achenes light to dark brown, not winged (but nearly so in E. saxatile), 3-gonous, glabrous, occasionally with minutely papillate beak. Seeds: embryo curved.

Species 107 (101 in the flora): w North America (including nw Mexico), mainly arid regions.

Species of subg. Eucycla not accounted for in this treatment are: Eriogonum encelioides Reveal & C. A. Hanson, E. fastigiatum Parry, E. molle Greene, E. orcuttianum S. Watson, E. pondii Greene, and E. zapatoense Moran. All are native to Baja California, Mexico.

The keys to species for subg. Eucycla are broken into geographic regions to aid in identification. They are: California (key 1, p. 225); British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (key 2, p. 228); Nevada and Utah (key 3, p. 231); Arizona and New Mexico (key 4, p. 237); Alberta, Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming (key 5, p. 239); and Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Great Plains states, and Texas (key 6, p. 242).

Key 4—Arizona and New Mexico

1 Plants herbaceous perennials, sometimes cespitose and matted   (2)
+ Plants shrubs or subshrubs   (11)
2 (1) Perianths pubescent   (3)
+ Perianths glabrous   (5)
3 (2) Achenes glabrous; flowering stems and inflorescence branches glabrous; plants erect, (2-)3-6 dm; se New Mexico   70 Eriogonum havardii
+ Achenes villous-tomentose; flowering stems and inflorescence branches tomentose or floccose; plants erect, (0.5-)1-3.5 dm, or cespitose mats; n Arizona and n New Mexico   (4)
4 (3) Involucres (2-)4-6 mm, deeply 5-10-toothed; perianths white to rose or yellow; n Arizona and nw New Mexico   68 Eriogonum shockleyi
+ Involucres (2-)3-4 mm, 5-toothed; perianths yellow; ne Arizona and n New Mexico   69 Eriogonum lachnogynum
5 (2) Tepals dimorphic; inflorescences usually capitate; n Arizona and nw New Mexico   98 Eriogonum ovalifolium
+ Tepals usually monomorphic; inflorescences not capitate; widespread   (6)
6 (5) Inflorescences virgate or racemose; involucres racemose along proximal inflorescence branches; plants usually erect, 3-8(-10) dm   (7)
+ Inflorescences broadly cymose; involucres not racemose along proximal inflorescence branches; plants spreading to erect, 1-4(-6) dm   (8)
7 (6) Perianths white to pinkish; flowering stems and involucres usually tomentose to floccose; n Arizona and n New Mexico   78 Eriogonum racemosum
+ Perianths pale yellow to yellow or bright red; flowering stems and involucres usually glabrous, rarely tomentose; nw Arizona   79 Eriogonum zionis
8 (6) Flowering stems and inflorescence branches tomentose; leaf blades elliptic to ovate or obovate, 1.5-4 × 1-2.5 cm; perianths white to whitish brown; Mohave County, Arizona   76 Eriogonum panamintense
+ Flowering stems and inflorescence branches glabrous; leaf blades usually linear to ovate or cordate to truncate, rarely reniform, (1-)3-8(-10) × 0.2-2.5(-3) cm; perianths white or yellow; widespread   (9)
9 (8) Leaf blades usually cordate to truncate, rarely reniform, (1-)1.5-2.5 cm, glabrous except for fine hairs on margins and veins; flowers 1-2 mm; perianth yellow; Eddy County, New Mexico   26 Eriogonum gypsophilum
+ Leaf blades linear to ovate, 1.5-8(-10) cm, tomentose to floccose on both surfaces, sometimes glabrous adaxially; flowers 2-3.5(-4) mm; perianth white or pale yellow to yellow; nw Arizona and n New Mexico   (10)
10 (9) Involucres 1 per node, turbinate, 2-3(-3.5) × 1-1.5(-2) mm; leaf margins plane or slightly revolute; Arizona   22 Eriogonum thompsoniae
+ Involucres 1 per node or 2-5 per cluster, turbinate to turbinate-campanulate, 2.5-4 × (1.3-)1.5-3.5(-4) mm; leaf margins plane or occasionally crenulate; New Mexico   23 Eriogonum lonchophyllum (in part)
11 (1) Perianths pubescent   (12)
+ Perianths glabrous   (13)
12 (11) Perianths white to pinkish; leaf blades usually oblanceolate, canescent adaxially; widespread, Arizona   80 Eriogonum fasciculatum
+ Perianths greenish yellow to yellow; leaf blades oblong-ovate to round-oblong or orbiculate, tomentose on both surfaces; Yuma County, Arizona   85 Eriogonum deserticola
13 (11) Flowering stems and inflorescence branches angled and ridged or scabrous or, if round and smooth, glabrous, dark green, and with spinose lateral branches   88 Eriogonum heermannii (in part)
+ Flowering stems smooth, glabrous, floccose, or tomentose, grayish to greenish   (14)
14 (13) Involucres racemosely disposed at tips of inflorescence branches   (15)
+ Involucres dichotomously arranged at tips of inflorescence branches   (17)
15 (14) Leaves fasciculate, blade 0.2-1.5 × 0.2-0.7(-0.9) cm, oblanceolate to elliptic; widespread   72 Eriogonum wrightii
+ Leaves not fasciculate, blade usually 1.5-3.5 × 0.2-0.8(-1.2) cm, linear-lanceolate or linear-oblanceolate to narrowly oblong or broadly elliptic; n Arizona and nw New Mexico   (16)
16 (15) Leaf blades linear-lanceolate to linear-oblanceolate to narrowly oblong or lanceolate to narrowly elliptic; inflorescence branches tomentose to floccose or glabrous; ne Arizona and San Juan County, New Mexico   4 Eriogonum leptocladon
+ Leaf blades broadly oblanceolate to broadly elliptic, rarely orbiculate; inflorescence branches tomentose to thinly floccose; nw Arizona   5 Eriogonum nummulare
17 (14) Leaf margins revolute or at least inrolled or thickened   (18)
+ Leaf margins not revolute or inrolled   (24)
18 (17) Leaf blades (0.5-)2-6 cm; inflorescences densely branched, thinly pubescent or glabrous; involucres narrowly turbinate, glabrous; n Arizona, nw New Mexico   7 Eriogonum leptophyllum
+ Leaf blades 0.2-1.8(-2.5) cm; inflorescences sparsely branched, usually tomentose to floccose; involucres turbinate to campanulate, tomentose to floccose or, rarely, glabrous; widespread   (19)
19 (18) Plants sprawling to decumbent subshrubs; inflorescences cymose-umbellate or capitate and reduced to single involucre; Coconino, se Yavapai, and nw Maricopa counties, Arizona   11 Eriogonum ripleyi
+ Plants erect to spreading subshrubs; inflorescences umbellate, umbellate-cymose, or cymose; widespread   (20)
20 (19) Tepals monomorphic   1 Eriogonum microthecum (in part)
+ Tepals dimorphic   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blades oblanceolate, 1-1.5(-2) cm, thinly tomentose and grayish adaxially, rarely glabrous; involucres turbinate-campanulate, 2.5-4.5 mm wide; nw San Juan County, New Mexico   8 Eriogonum clavellatum
+ Leaf blades linear to narrowly elliptic, 0.3-1 cm, floccose or glabrous and green adaxially; involucres narrowly turbinate to turbinate, 1-2 mm wide, or campanulate, 2.5-3.5 mm wide; Arizona   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blades linear, glabrous and green adaxially; involucres turbinate, 1.5-3(-3.5) × 1-2 mm; Verdi River Valley, c Yavapai County, Arizona   14 Eriogonum ericifolium
+ Leaf blades linear-oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, floccose or glabrous and greenish adaxially; involucres narrowly turbinate and 1.5-3 × 1-1.5 mm or campanulate and 3-4.5 × 2.5-3.5 mm; not of Verdi River Valley, Arizona   (23)
23 (22) Flowers 1.5-2(-2.5) mm; involucres narrowly turbinate, 1-1.5 mm wide; plants 0.8-1.2(-1.5) dm; Apache, Coconino, ne Mohave, Navajo, and n Yavapai counties, Arizona   12 Eriogonum pulchrum
+ Flowers 3.5-4.5(-5) mm; involucres campanulate, 2.5-3.5 mm wide; plants 1-4(-5) dm; Cochise and Pima counties, Arizona   13 Eriogonum terrenatum
24 (17) Inflorescences flat-topped and tiered, branches zigzag; leaf blades tomentose on both surfaces; plants erect, taller than wide; Mohave and w Yavapai counties, Arizona   89 Eriogonum plumatella
+ Inflorescences open, not flat-topped, branches not zigzag; leaf blades typically not tomentose on both surfaces; plants spreading to rounded, wider than tall; widespread. [25. Shifted to left margin.—Ed.]   (25)
25 (24) Leaf apices sharply acute; leaf blades usually narrowly elliptic, 0.1-0.2 cm wide; nw and nc Arizona   1 Eriogonum microthecum (in part)
+ Leaf apices acute to rounded; leaf blades lanceolate to oblanceolate, elliptic, or cordate, (0.2-)0.3-3 cm wide; widespread   (26)
26 (25) Flowering stems and inflorescence branches glabrous   (27)
+ Flowering stems and inflorescence branches usually tomentose to floccose   (28)
27 (26) Leaf blades bright green and glabrous; Arizona   21 Eriogonum mortonianum
+ Leaf blades densely white-tomentose abaxially, sparsely tomentose to thinly floccose or glabrous and green adaxially; New Mexico   23 Eriogonum lonchophyllum (in part)
28 (26) Tepals dimorphic   (29)
+ Tepals monomorphic   (30)
29 (28) Leaf blades cordate, 1-2(-2.5) cm wide.   19 Eriogonum jonesii
+ Leaf blades linear, oblanceolate to spatulate or elliptic, 0.1-0.8 cm wide   88 Eriogonum heermannii (in part)
30 (28) Leaf blades oblanceolate to oblong or obovate, (0.2-)0.3-0.7 cm wide, densely white-tomentose abaxially, white-floccose to glabrate or green and glabrous adaxially, margins plane; inflorescences usually dense; n New Mexico w to e San Juan County   2 Eriogonum effusum
+ Leaf blades usually lanceolate to oblanceolate or elliptic to nearly orbiculate, rarely cordate, (0.3-)0.5-3 cm wide, densely white-, tannish-, or brownish-tomentose on both surfaces or less so to nearly glabrous and green abaxially, margins crisped, occasionally crenulate; inflorescences usually open; n Arizona and nw New Mexico   16 Eriogonum corymbosum

List of Keys


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