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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Burmanniaceae

1. Burmannia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 287. 1753.

水玉簪属 shui yu zan shu

Burmannia disticha

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, annual or perennial, mycotrophic, semi-mycotrophic, or autotrophic, sometimes rhizomatous. Stems simple, rarely branched. Basal leaves in a distinct rosette; cauline leaves bractlike, small. Flowers solitary or in terminal cymes. Perianth tube actinomorphic, cylindric or trigonous, with 3 lateral wings or sometimes wings absent, without annulus at tube mouth; tepals generally 6, apically distinct; outer tepals larger than inner, unlobed; inner tepals often minute, occasionally lacking. Stamens 3, sessile or subsessile on perianth tube; connective with 0-2 apical and 0 or 1 basal appendages. Ovary trigonous, 3-loculed, with axile placentation; stigmas 2-labiate to funnel-shaped. Fruit capsular, with persistent perianth, dehiscence generally irregular.

About 57 species: tropical and subtropical regions; ten species (one endemic) in China.

1 Plants with chlorophyll, autotrophic or semi-mycotrophic; basal rosette leaves present   (2)
+ Plants without chlorophyll, holomycotrophic; basal rosette leaves absent   (5)
2 (1) Basal leaves numerous; cauline leaves 1.5-8 cm; inflorescences 8-20-flowered.   1 B. disticha
+ Basal leaves few; cauline leaves 0.5-3 cm; inflorescences 1-6(-8)-flowered   (3)
3 (2) Stems to 40 cm tall; outer tepal margins double and prominent; inner tepal margins double.   2 B. coelestis
+ Stems to 24 cm tall; outer tepal margins single or double and shallow; inner tepal margins single   (4)
4 (3) Inflorescences 1-3(or 4)-flowered; flowers 3-8 mm; stamens sessile in perianth tube.   3 B. chinensis
+ Inflorescences (1-)3-5(-8)-flowered; flowers 9-14 mm; stamens with short filament, basally adnate to perianth tube.   4 B. filamentosa
5 (1) Stems, leaves, and flowers ± purplish blue   (6)
+ Stems, leaves, and flowers whitish or yellow   (7)
6 (5) Perianth wings narrow or reduced to ribs; outer tepals ca. 1 mm.   7 B. wallichii
+ Perianth wings conspicuous, 1-2 mm wide; outer tepals 1.5-2 mm.   8 B. itoana
7 (5) Inflorescences (1-)3-13-flowered; inner tepals present, sometimes very small   (8)
+ Inflorescences 1-4-flowered; inner tepals absent   (9)
8 (7) Perianth wings conspicuous, 1-2 mm wide; stamen connectives with a pendent basal spur; seeds fusiform.   5 B. nepalensis
+ Perianth wings reduced to ribs or absent; stamen connectives without a pendent basal spur; seeds subglobose.   10 B. championii
9 (7) Stems to 20 cm; perianth tube 4.5-5.5 mm; perianth wings 3-5.5 mm wide; stamen connectives with 2 apical crests; seeds fusiform.   6 B. oblonga
+ Stems to 9 cm; perianth tube 3-4 mm; perianth wings 0.5-2.5 mm wide; stamen connectives with 1 apical crest; seeds ellipsoid.   9 B. cryptopetala

Lower Taxa


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