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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

30. Phlomis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 584. 1753.

糙苏属 cao su shu

Phlomis melanantha

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial. Leaves corrugate; floral and stem leaves similar, gradually reduced upward. Verticillasters axillary. Flowers usually sessile. Calyx tubular or tubular-campanulate, throat not oblique; veins 5, 10, or 11, elevated; teeth 5, equal, sinuses between them often expanded into triangular, sometimes emarginate teeth. Corolla yellow, purple, or white, 2-lipped; tube included or slightly exserted, usually villous annulate inside; upper lip straight or galeate, concave or folded/keeled, rarely narrowly falcate, entire or fringed-denticulate, tomentose or villous; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed, middle lobe wider than lateral lobes. Stamens didynamous, anterior 2 longer, ascending to upper lip of corolla; posterior 2 often with appendages at base; anthers close together in pairs, with 2, divaricate, apically confluent cells. Style lobes subulate, posterior usually to 1/2 as long as anterior, rarely equal. Nutlets ovoid, triquetrous, apex obtuse, rarely truncate.

More than 100 species: Africa, Asia, Europe; 43 species in China, particularly diverse in Sichuan and Yunnan.

Adylov, Kamelin, and Makhmedov (Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 110-114, 1986) and Vvedensky (Conspect. Fl. As. Med. 9: 74-113, 1987) believe that species 2-43 in this account, along with 2 Chinese species of Eremostachys, should be transferred to Phlomoides.

1 Upper lip of corolla laterally compressed, orange pubescent on inside margin; middle lobe of lower lip broadly ovate, lateral lobes smaller, lanceolate   1 Phlomis fruticosa
+ Upper lip of corolla galeate, not compressed, densely long barbate on inside margin; lateral lobes of lower lip of corolla only slightly smaller than middle lobe, obtuse.   (2)
2 (1) Style equally 2-cleft at apex   2 Phlomis cuneata
+ Style unequally 2-cleft at apex.   (3)
3 (2) Plants with basal rosette of leaves.   (4)
+ Plants without basal leaf rosette, only stem leaves present.   (24)
4 (3) Posterior filaments without appendages at base.   (5)
+ Posterior filaments with appendages at base.   (9)
5 (4) Plants less than 5 cm tall; leaves ovate to lanceolate, stellate hairy   22 Phlomis pygmaea
+ Plants more than 5 cm tall.   (6)
6 (5) Plants glabrous leaf and calyx margin ciliate; corolla purple-black to pink; nutlets glabrous   23 Phlomis atropurpurea
+ Plants uniformly hairy.   (7)
7 (6) Bracts densely brown ciliate; verticillasters close together or separate; nutlets glabrous   18 Phlomis tibetica
+ Bracts densely white villous (except in P. oreophila var. evillosa with bracts stellate pannose).   (8)
8 (7) Stems retrorse appressed villous; all verticillasters approximate; nutlets stellate puberulent at apex   5 Phlomis oreophila
+ Stems stellate puberulent; at least basal verticillasters separate; nutlets glabrous   6 Phlomis chinghoensis
9 (4) Nutlets hairy.   (10)
+ Nutlets glabrous.   (18)
10 (9) Floral leaves subverticillate, ovate to broadly triangular-ovate; plants ca. 10 cm tall   14 Phlomis uniceps
+ Floral leaves not arranged as above; plants taller.   (11)
11 (10) Abaxial leaf surface with unbranched hairs or subglabrous.   (12)
+ Abaxial leaf surface with stellate hairs.   (14)
12 (11) Leaves cordate, crenate, with unbranched hairs on both surfaces   3 Phlomis alpina
+ Leaves triangular to ovate, cordate at base, irregularly coarsely crenate, adaxially sparsely hispid or glabrous, abaxially glabrous or hispid on veins, or hispid on both surfaces.   (13)
13 (12) Verticillasters 1, terminal; spines of calyx teeth 4-5.5 mm   12 Phlomis kansuensis
+ Verticillasters 3-10, on upper part of stems and branches; spines of calyx teeth 1.8-2.5 mm   10 Phlomis tuberosa
14 (11) Leaves with stellate hispid and simple hairs, or with stellate strigose and simple hairs.   (15)
+ Leaves with simple hairs adaxially.   (16)
15 (14) Basal leaves lanceolate-oblong to narrowly oblong, adaxially with stellate strigose and simple hairs, abaxially stellate tomentulose   8 Phlomis younghusbandii
+ Basal leaves ovate-triangular to triangular-lanceolate, adaxially stellate hispid with long central arms and simple hairs, or sparsely hispid to subglabrous, abaxially sparsely to densely stellate pilose   13 Phlomis mongolica
16 (14) Bracts lanceolate or narrow lanceolate   15 Phlomis maximowiczii
+ Bracts linear, needlelike, or linear-subulate.   (17)
17 (16) Stems simple or branched; bracts slightly shorter than calyx; calyx densely stellate puberulent outside   11 Phlomis agraria
+ Stems many branched; bracts subequal to calyx; calyx sparsely stellate puberulent to hispid outside   17 Phlomis medicinalis
18 (9) Basal leaves early deciduous; stem leaves hastate-ovate, appressed pilose   21 Phlomis pararotata
+ Basal leaves persistent; stem leaves narrowly to broadly ovate.   (19)
19 (18) Basal leaves broadly cordate, ca. 14 × 12 cm, sparsely strigose and corrugate adaxially   7 Phlomis koraiensis
+ Leaves smaller, triangular, triangular-ovate, cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate.   (20)
20 (19) Corolla reddish pink.   (21)
+ Corolla purple-red or dark purple; leaves cordate-ovate.   (22)
21 (20) Stem hairs with unequal arms; leaves narrowly ovate to oblong-lanceolate   9 Phlomis betonicoides
+ Stem hairs with longer central arms; leaves triangular to triangular-ovate   16 Phlomis dentosa
22 (20) Corolla dark purple; leaves broadly ovate to circular-ovate, apex rounded, base cordate, sparsely strigose   20 Phlomis fimbriata
+ Corolla purple-red; leaves acute to obtuse at apex, shallowly cordate at base.   (23)
23 (22) Leaves cordate-ovate or ovate-oblong, stellate pilose and with simple hairs on both surfaces or abaxially stellate pubescent   4 Phlomis pratensis
+ Leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, adaxially densely hispid, abaxially densely stellate pilose   19 Phlomis milingensis
24 (3) Corolla more than 3 cm.   (25)
+ Corolla less than 3 cm.   (26)
25 (24) Corolla yellow   24 Phlomis megalantha
+ Corolla dark purple   25 Phlomis ornata
26 (24) Verticillasters conspicuously pedunculate.   (27)
+ Verticillasters sessile.   (31)
27 (26) Posterior filaments without appendages at base.   (28)
+ Posterior filaments with appendages at base.   (29)
28 (27) Bracts as long as or slightly longer than calyx; stems sparsely retrorse minute hispid, sometimes stellate pubescent at apex   42 Phlomis umbrosa
+ Bracts ca. 1/2 as long as calyx; stems densely tawny stellate pubescent   43 Phlomis szechuanensis
29 (27) Calyx gray stellate pannose outside; bracts leaflike, linear-lanceolate, rarely lanceolate, 4-13(-22) × 1.5-3(-5.5) mm   35 Phlomis likiangensis
+ Calyx with other types of hairs kind; bracts usually smaller, narrower.   (30)
30 (29) Verticillasters rather loose, usually 1, rarely 2 at apex of stem or branch; flowers long pedicellate; calyx indehiscent   40 Phlomis pedunculata
+ Verticillasters rather compact, usually 2-5(-9) at apex of stem or branch; flowers short pedicellate; calyx dehiscent   31 Phlomis congesta
31 (26) Bracts ca. 1/2 as long as calyx or absent.   (32)
+ Bracts more than 1/2 as long as calyx.   (34)
32 (31) Calyx ca. 1.5 cm   38 Phlomis longicalyx
+ Calyx 0.8-1 cm.   (33)
33 (32) Corolla purple   36 Phlomis franchetiana
+ Corolla yellow   37 Phlomis ambigua
34 (31) Leaves cordate to broadly ovate, 11-14 × 7-13 cm; posterior filaments with reflexed, hooked, long-spurred appendage at base far above pilose annulus of corolla tube inside   28 Phlomis paohsingensis
+ Leaves of different shapes.   (35)
35 (34) Leaves abaxially densely stellate tomentose, triangular to triangular-ovate, irregularly deeply crenate-dentate   39 Phlomis muliensis
+ Leaves abaxially without hairs as above.   (36)
36 (35) Posterior filaments with a reflexed slender appendage at base.   (37)
+ Posterior filaments with an upwardly curved appendage at base.   (38)
37 (36) Leaves strigose adaxially and along margin abaxially, with elevated glands abaxially   26 Phlomis melanantha
+ Leaves sparsely minutely hispid adaxially, abaxially stellate pilose, densely and finely spreading setose along veins   27 Phlomis forrestii
38 (36) Leaves adaxially sparsely short bristly, abaxially pilose, with simple hairs on both surfaces; stems much branched; posterior filaments with a short spurred appendage far above pilose annulus of corolla tube inside   41 Phlomis jeholensis
+ Leaves adaxially with simple and/or stellate hairs, abaxially with stellate and simple hairs.   (39)
39 (38) Calyx indehiscent, veins elevated.   (40)
+ Calyx irregularly dehiscent, veins not elevated.   (41)
40 (39) Stems sparsely retrorse minutely hispid; calyx tube densely stellate puberulent, veins spreading bristly, teeth with an apical spine 2-3 mm   29 Phlomis setifera
+ Stems stellate pubescent or densely tawny stellate tomentulose; calyx tube stellate pubescent (and spreading hirsute in var. hirticalyx)   30 Phlomis tatsienensis
41 (39) Leaves ± leathery, sparsely strigose or subglabrous, margin ciliolate, abaxially subglabrous or stellate strigose and hairs with a long central arm   33 Phlomis strigosa
+ Leaves herbaceous, adaxially sparsely strigose or stellate pubescent, abaxially stellate pubescent or dense stellate pilose.   (42)
42 (41) Stem leaves ovate; bracts linear   32 Phlomis inaequalisepala
+ Stem leaves sagittate-oblong; bracts subulate   34 Phlomis ruptilis

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