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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula orbicularis

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 10

1 Lateral veins of leaves branched from base; calyx few veined.   (2)
+ Lateral veins of leaves pinnate; calyx many veined.   (7)
       
2 (1) Petiole vaginate at base; leaves glabrescent abaxially   33 Primula vaginata
+ Petiole not vaginate at base; leaves pubescent along veins abaxially.   (3)
       
3 (2) Flowers homostylous   36 Primula septemloba
+ Flowers heterostylous.   (4)
       
4 (3) Scapes usually with 2 superimposed umbels; leaf blade coarsely dentate-lobulate   37 Primula loeseneri
+ Scapes usually with 1 umbel; leaf blade palmately 5-9-lobed.   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade lobed to 2/5, lobules subrotund or broadly triangular with crenate or obtuse teeth   38 Primula heucherifolia
+ Leaf blade lobed 1/3-1/2, lobules triangular to ovate-triangular with acute teeth.   (6)
       
6 (5) Plants stoloniferous; umbels 2- or 3-flowered   39 Primula alsophila
+ Plants occasionally producing stolons; umbels usually many flowered   40 Primula geraniifolia
       
7 (1) Leaf blade ovate to oblong, at least 2 × as long as wide.   (8)
+ Leaf blade suborbicular, slightly longer than wide.   (9)
       
8 (7) Leaf blade lobed 1/3-1/2, lobules incised-dentate   31 Primula saxatilis
+ Leaf blade lobed to 1/4, lobules crenulate   32 Primula sieboldii
       
9 (7) Leaf blade distinctly palmately or pinnately lobed.   (10)
+ Leaf blade shallowly crenate or dentate-lobulate.   (11)
       
10 (9) Calyx and corolla tube pubescent to glabrous   30 Primula polyneura
+ Calyx and corolla tube subglabrous   31 Primula saxatilis
       
11 (9) Scapes with 3-10 superimposed umbels; calyx parted to middle.   (12)
+ Scapes with 1 or 2 superimposed umbels; calyx parted usually below middle.   (13)
       
12 (11) Calyx 8-11 mm, lobes ovate to ovate-lanceolate   172 Pedicularis mollis
+ Calyx 5-6.5 mm, lobes narrowly lanceolate   26 Primula sinomollis
       
13 (11) Calyx lobes oblong to oblong-lanceolate, herbaceous, ciliate   27 Primula neurocalyx
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate, subleathery, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent.   (14)
       
14 (13) Leaf blade sinuate, lobules subrotund; calyx 4.5-7 mm; corolla tube 6.5-8 mm   28 Primula cinerascens
+ Leaf blade coarsely dentate-lobulate, lobules triangular, apex acute; calyx 7-12 mm; corolla tube 10-13.5 mm   29 Primula violaris

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