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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula nutans

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 16

1 Leaves papery to subleathery, ± bullate adaxially.   (2)
+ Leaves membranous, not bullate.   (4)
       
2 (1) Scapes less than 1 cm at anthesis   103 Primula esquirolii
+ Scapes at least 3.5 cm at anthesis.   (3)
       
3 (2) Calyx parted to middle, lobes entire   111 Primula epilosa
+ Calyx parted to ca. 1/3, lobes 3-toothed   104 Primula tridentifera
       
4 (1) Scapes absent.   (5)
+ Scapes present.   (7)
       
5 (4) Corolla lobes 3-toothed; inner leaves with long slender petioles   72 Primula gracilipes
+ Corolla lobes emarginate, lobules entire; leaves with broadly winged petioles.   (6)
       
6 (5) Plants ± farinose; calyx tubular-campanulate, 4-6 mm, lobes acute to subacuminate   73 Primula cunninghamii
+ Plants efarinose; calyx tubular, 7-12 mm, lobes acuminate-subulate, ± recurved at apex   74 Primula hoffmanniana
       
7 (4) Leaves distinctly dimorphic, base attenuate in outer leaves or truncate to cordate in inner leaves.   (8)
+ Leaves monomorphic, base attenuate, rarely subrounded.   (10)
       
8 (7) Corolla lobes deeply emarginate; calyx lobes acute to obtuse   78 Primula moupinensis
+ Corolla lobes 2- to several toothed; calyx lobes acuminate.   (9)
       
9 (8) Calyx lobes ovate-triangular, acuminate-subulate   75 Primula scapigera
+ Calyx lobes ovate to ovate-oblong, subacuminate   76 Primula bracteosa
       
10 (7) Plants ± farinose.   (11)
+ Plants efarinose.   (12)
       
11 (10) Scapes obsolete; corolla lobes 2-cleft, lobules irregularly denticulate   77 Primula prevernalis
+ Scapes more than 2 cm at anthesis; corolla lobes deeply emarginate, lobules entire   78 Primula moupinensis
       
12 (10) Petiole slender, ca. as long as leaf blade in flowering plants.   (13)
+ Petioles broadly winged, obsolete to 1/2 as long as blade inflowering plants.   (14)
       
13 (12) Leaf blade irregularly sinuate-dentate; calyx lobes obtuse   81 Primula sinuata
+ Leaf blade dentate; calyx lobes acute   82 Primula wenshanensis
       
14 (12) Corolla exannulate; stamens of pin flowers inserted at lower 1/2 of corolla tube; thrum flower style ca. 1/2 as long as calyx   80 Primula euosma
+ Corolla annulate; stamens of pin flowers inserted at middle of corolla tube; thrum flower style ca. as long as calyx.   (15)
       
15 (14) Bracts triangular to ovate-triangular; umbels (2-)4- to many flowered; scapes robust   78 Primula moupinensis
+ Bracts linear-lanceolate; umbels (1-)3-8-flowered; scapes slender   79 Primula odontocalyx

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