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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula nutans

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 13

1 Plants efarinose.   (2)
+ Plants farinose, sometimes only sparsely so on calyx.   (10)
       
2 (1) Corolla 4-7 mm in diam.; leaves not cartilaginous on margin.   (3)
+ Corolla more than 1 cm in diam.; leaves cartilaginous on margin.   (4)
       
3 (2) Scapes glandular; leaf blade coarsely pinnatifid-dentate with obtuse teeth   291 Primula sapphirina
+ Scapes without glands; leaf blade sharply dentate on upper 1/2 of margin   292 Primula flabellifera
       
4 (2) Umbels compact; pedicel 1-2 mm, concealed in bracts   135 Primula faberi
+ Umbels lax; pedicel usually more than 3 mm, distinctly longer than bracts.   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade coarse dentate   137 Primula odontica
+ Leaf blade denticulate or subentire.   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute; corolla lobes narrowly oblong   138 Primula virginis
+ Leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate; corolla lobes suborbicular to elliptic.   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaf blade rounded or obtuse at apex.   (8)
+ Leaf blade acute at apex.   (9)
       
8 (7) Plants delicate; corolla 0.8-1.2 cm   139 Primula silaensis
+ Plants robust; corolla 1.2-1.6 cm   140 Primula amethystina
       
9 (7) Calyx 3.5-5 mm; corolla broadly campanulate, pubescent inside   141 Primula valentiniana
+ Calyx 6-8 mm; corolla narrowly campanulate, glabrous inside   142 Primula kingii
       
10 (1) Plants dwarf, less than 5 cm tall   227 Primula nutantiflora
+ Plants robust, more than 5 cm tall.   (11)
       
11 (10) Corolla red to purple.   (12)
+ Corolla yellow or white.   (15)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade rounded to truncate at base   145 Primula alpicola
+ Leaf blade attenuate at base.   (13)
       
13 (12) Calyx with vertical stripes of farina   116 Primula secundiflora
+ Calyx without vertical stripes of farina.   (14)
       
14 (13) Corolla limb 0.6-1.3(-1.8) cm wide, shorter than tube; leaf blade erose-dentate   149 Primula waltonii
+ Corolla limb 2-2.5 cm wide, longer than tube; leaf blade incised-dentate   150 Primula ioessa
       
15 (11) Leaf blade attenuate at base.   (16)
+ Leaf blade cordate, truncate, or rounded at base.   (17)
       
16 (15) Leaves thin papery or submembranous, reticulate veins prominent abaxially   143 Primula sikkimensis
+ Leaves firm papery or subleathery, reticulate veins obscure abaxially   144 Primula chumbiensis
       
17 (15) Leaf blade broadly ovate to ovate-oblong or suborbicular, slightly longer than wide or nearly as long as wide.   (18)
+ Leaf blade elliptic to oblong, usually at least 2 × as long as wide.   (19)
       
18 (17) Scapes slender, 10-40 cm; umbels 2-8-flowered   147 Primula firmipes
+ Scapes robust, 30-120 cm; umbels (10-)15-30(-80)-flowered   148 Primula florindae
       
19 (17) Bracts linear-lanceolate to subulate; calyx parted to near middle; leavesfirmly papery or subleathery   144 Primula chumbiensis
+ Bracts lanceolate to ovate; calyx usually parted to 1/3; leaves thinly papery or submembranous.   (20)
       
20 (19) Calyx campanulate to tubular-campanulate, lobes triangular to triangular-lanceolate; stamens in pin flowers inserted near base of corolla tube   145 Primula alpicola
+ Calyx tubular-campanulate, lobes lanceolate; stamens in pin flowers inserted at middle of corolla tube   146 Primula reticulata

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