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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Rosaceae

41. ROSA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 491. 1753.

蔷薇属 qiang wei shu

Gu Cuizhi (Ku Tsue-chih); Kenneth R. Robertson

Rosa omeiensis

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Shrubs, erect, diffuse, or climbing, mostly prickly, bristly, or rarely unarmed, pubescent, glandular-pubescent, or glabrous. Leaves alternate, odd pinnate, rarely simple; stipules adnate or inserted at petiole, rarely absent. Flowers solitary or in a corymb, rarely in a compound corymb or a panicle; bracts solitary, several, or absent. Hypanthium globose, urceolate, or cupular, constricted at neck. Sepals 5, rarely 4, quincuncial: 2 outer, 2 inner, and 1 middle, margin entire or variously pinnately lobed. Petals 5, rarely 4, imbricate, white, yellow, pink, or red; disc inserted at mouth of hypanthium. Stamens numerous, in several whorls, inserted at disc. Carpels free, numerous, rarely few, inserted at margin or base of hypanthium, not or rarely stalked; ovule pendulous; styles terminal or lateral, exserted or not, free or connate at upper part. Fruit a hip, formed from fleshy hypanthium. Achenes numerous, rarely few, on adaxial surface of fleshy hypanthium, woody. Seed pendulous. x = 7.

About 200 species: widely distributed from subtropical to cold-temperate regions; 95 species (65 endemic) in China.

The following three species require further study. We are unable to treat them in this account because we have seen no specimens. Rosa atroglandulosa C. K. Schneider (Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 64: 75. 1917), described from Sichuan; R. beauvaisii Cardot (Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3: 261. 1916), described from N Vietnam, also reported for SW Guangxi (Longzhou Xian) (Kai Larsen, pers. comm.); and R. tunquinensis Crépin (Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 25(2): 192. 1886), described from N Vietnam and China, also reported for Laos (Kai Larsen, pers. comm.).

Several species and hybrids are cultivated in China. The following occur in addition to those mentioned below: Rosa ×alba Linnaeus (of uncertain parentage), R. centifolia Linnaeus, R. damascena Miller, R. ×fortuneana Lindley (probably R. banksiae × R. laevigata), and R. gallica Linnaeus.

Key based mainly on vegetative characters

1 Leaves simple, exstipulate; flower solitary; petals yellow.   1 R. berberifolia
+ Leaves compound, stipulate; flowers solitary to numerous; petals variously colored.   (2)
2 (1) Stipules free, deciduous.   (3)
+ Stipules adnate to petiole, persistent.   (6)
3 (2) Leaflets 5–9, elliptic or obovate; stipules pectinate; petals white; flowers solitary, or 2 or 3 and fasciculate, 4.5–7 cm in diam.; bracts large, laciniate, abaxially tomentose.   92 R. bracteata
+ Leaflets 3–5(–7), elliptic, ovate, elliptic-ovate, obovate, or oblong-lanceolate; stipules pectinate or not; petals variously colored; flowers solitary or several in umbel or corymb; bracts small or absent.   (4)
4 (3) Leaflets 3(or 4), elliptic-ovate or obovate, glabrous; petals white; flower solitary, 5–10 cm in diam.; pedicel and hypanthium densely glandular bristly.   91 R. laevigata
+ Leaflets 3–5(–7), elliptic, ovate, or oblong-lanceolate; petals yellow or white; flowers 1–3, 1.5–2.5 cm diam.; pedicel and hypanthium often glabrous.   (5)
5 (4) Flowers in umbel or corymb; sepals entire.   89 R. banksiae
+ Flowers in compound corymb; sepals pinnately lobed.   90 R. cymosa
6 (2) Stipules pectinate or irregularly serrate at margin; styles connate, exserted.   (7)
+ Stipules entire; styles free, rarely connate.   (18)
7 (6) Stipules pectinate.   (8)
+ Stipules irregularly serrate at margin.   (12)
8 (7) Styles hairy; flowers 5–7 flowered, in corymb; leaflets abaxially densely tomentose-pubescent.   63 R. kunmingensis
+ Style glabrous; flowers solitary to numerous, in panicle or corymb; leaflets abaxially pubescent or tomentose-pubescent.   (9)
9 (8) Flower solitary; leaflets 5–7, obovate or broadly elliptic.   62 R. uniflorella
+ Flowers numerous in panicle; leaflets 5–9, rhomboid-elliptic, obovate, oblong, or ovate.   (10)
10 (9) Leaflets 5–7, margin doubly serrate; sepals pinnately lobed, lobule linear, abaxially glandular- pubescent.   61 R. daishanensis
+ Leaflets 5–9, margin simple-serrate, occasionally doubly serrate; sepals entire or 2-lobed, abaxially not glandular-pubescent.   (11)
11 (10) Leaflets 7–9, rhomboid-elliptic, base cuneate, margin deeply serrate; sepals entire at margin.   59 R. langyashanica
+ Leaflets 5–9, obovate, oblong, or ovate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin shallowly serrate; sepals 2-lobed or entire.   60 R. multiflora
12 (7) Leaflets 3–5, ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, oblong, or oblong-obovate; flowers solitary or 4 to several in corymb.   (13)
+ Leaflets (5–)7–9, elliptic, oblong, ovate or obovate, not lanceolate; flowers several in corymb.   (14)
13 (12) Leaflets ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, flowers solitary or in corymb.   73 R. anemoniflora
+ Leaflets oblong to oblong-obovate; flowers 4 to several in terminal corymb.   67 R. sambucina
14 (12) Leaflets abaxially densely villous; styles pubescent.   (15)
+ Leaflets abaxially glabrous or subglabrous; styles glabrous or pubescent.   (16)
15 (14) Leaflets 5–9, adaxially along midvein pubescent; petals white or red; flowers 1.5–3 cm in diam.; pedicel and hypanthium densely pubescent and glandular-pubescent.   64 R. kwangtungensis
+ Leaflets, 3–5(–7), abaxially glabrous; petals pink; flowers 2.5–3 cm in diam.; pedicel and hypanthium glabrous, rarely sparsely glandular-pubescent.   65 R. lichiangensis
16 (14) Leaflets 7–9, rarely 5, apex acute or acuminate, abaxially along veins pubescent; styles glabrous; hip ovoid.   72 R. maximowicziana
+ Leaflets 5–7, rarely 9, apex rounded-obtuse or acute, abaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent; styles pubescent; hip globose or subglobose.   (17)
17 (16) Leaflets elliptic, ovate, or obovate; hypanthium and sepals abaxially subglabrous.   70 R. luciae
+ Leaflets ovate or oblong; hypanthium abaxially glandular setulose, sepals glandular-setulose on both surfaces.   69 R. pricei
18 (6) Leaflets 3–5(–7).   (19)
+ Leaflets more than (5–)7.   (40)
19 (18) Leaflets doubly serrate at margin.   (20)
+ Leaflets simply serrate, rarely partly doubly serrate at margin.   (25)
20 (19) Leaflets glabrous or abaxially pubescent along veins.   (21)
+ Leaflets abaxially sparsely pubescent and glandular-pubescent.   (22)
21 (20) Leaflets ovate-oblong or elliptic, 2.5–6 cm, apex acute or rounded-obtuse; petals red; flowers numerous in corymb, 2–2.5 cm in diam.; styles free, obviously exserted.   25 R. corymbulosa
+ Leaflets obovate or elliptic, smaller, 0.8–1.5 cm, apex rounded-obtuse or truncate; petals yellowish or white; flowers 1–3 and fasciculate, ca. 1 cm in diam.; styles connate, slightly exserted.   87 R. duplicata
22 (20) Leaflets 3–5; styles connate or free, exserted or slightly so.   (23)
+ Leaflets 5(–7); styles free, slightly exserted.   (24)
23 (22) Styles connate, exserted; petals white; flowers ca. 1.5 cm in diam., in corymb.   88 R. weisiensis
+ Styles free, slightly exserted; petals pink; flowers ca. 2.5 cm in diam., solitary, rarely 2 or 3 and fasciculate.   50 R. baiyushanensis
24 (22) Leaflets elliptic, oblong, or ovate, 15–35 mm; flowers solitary or several; sepals oblong- lanceolate, margin entire, pubescent outside.   38 R. chengkouensis
+ Leaflets obovate or oblong, 5–11 mm; flowers 2 or 3 and fasciculate, rarely solitary, sepals triangular-lanceolate, pinnately lobed, glabrous outside.   45 R. pinnatisepala
25 (19) Old branches prickly, bristly, or setose.   (26)
+ Old branches only prickly, not bristly and setose.   (28)
26 (25) Leaflets 5–7(–9), thick, adaxially rugose, abaxially tomentose; branchlets and prickles tomentose; petals purple-red or white; flowers 1–3; hip dark red, depressed-globose.   29 R. rugosa
+ Leaflets 3–7, thin, adaxially not rugose, glabrous, abaxially pubescent or only along midvein pubescent; branchlets glabrous or subglabrous; petals pink or purple-red; flowers 1–3 or 8–12; hip black-purple, pyriform or obovoid.   (27)
27 (26) Petals pink; leaflets 3–7; hip red, pyriform or long ellipsoid, with a distinct neck.   32 R. acicularis
+ Petals purple-red; leaflets 3(–5); hip purple, obovoid or pyriform, without neck.   58 R. lucidissima
28 (25) Leaflets abaxially ± pubescent.   (29)
+ Leaflets abaxially glabrous.   (33)
29 (28) Leaflets less than 1.5 cm, 3–5, margin obtusely serrate; flowers 3–5 in corymb; petals white but pink before anthesis; styles free.   49 R. pseudobanksiae
+ Leaflets more than 2 cm, 3–7, margin acutely serrate; flowers numerous in compound corymb; petals white; styles connate.   (30)
30 (29) Leaflets with both surfaces pubescent, 5–7, oblong or long-lanceolate; branchlets densely pubescent; hip purple-brown, ovoid.   74 R. brunonii
+ Leaflets adaxially glabrous, 3–7, oblong to ovate or lanceolate; branchlets glabrous or slightly pubescent; hip orange-red or red, subglobose.   (31)
31 (30) Leaflets adaxially rugose, abaxially densely grayish pubescent and with prominent veins, 5–7, oblong or oblong-obovate; hip orange-red.   75 R. glomerata
+ Leaflets abaxially smooth, abaxially with only midvein prominent, 3–7, oblong-ovate, lanceolate, or ovate-elliptic to obovate; hip red.   (32)
32 (31) Leaflets abaxially glandular, subglabrous, 5–7, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, apex acuminate.   81 R. filipes
+ Leaflets abaxially not glandular, densely pubescent, (3–)5, ovate-elliptic or obovate, apex caudate-acuminate or acute.   76 R. rubus
33 (28) Erect shrub.   (34)
+ Climbing liana.   (36)
34 (33) Leaflets (5–)7(–9), elliptic or obovate, 1–3 cm, apex rounded-obtuse or acute, styles connate; hip ovoid-globose, orange-red.   85 R. soulieana
+ Leaflets 3–5(–7), obovate or broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, 0.9–6 cm, apex acuminate or rounded-obtuse; styles free or connate; hip ovoid to pyriform or globose to obovoid-globose, red or red-brown.   (35)
35 (34) Leaflets broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, 2.5–6 cm, apex acuminate; styles free, hip red, ovoid to pyriform.   56 R. chinensis
+ Leaflets obovate, 9–15 * 6–10 mm, apex rounded-obtuse; styles connate; hip red-brown, globose or obovoid-globose.   83 R. derongensis
36 (33) Flowers 1–3; styles free.   (37)
+ Flowers numerous in corymb or compound corymb; styles connate.   (38)
37 (36) Leaflets 5–9, elliptic or ovate, apex acute or acuminate; petals yellow, pink, or white; sepals entire; hip depressed-ovoid.   57 R. odorata
+ Leaflets 3(–5), oblong-ovate or long elliptic, apex caudate-acuminate or acute; petals purple-red; sepals entire or slightly incised; hip pyriform or obovoid.   58 R. lucidissima
38 (36) Leaflets 5–9, rarely 3, leathery, shorter, 3–7 cm; petals abaxially pubescent; flowers in corymb.   78 R. longicuspis
+ Leaflets 3–5, papery or leathery, longer, 3.5–12 cm; petals abaxially glabrous or pubescent; flowers in corymb or compound corymb.   (39)
39 (38) Leaflets papery; petals abaxially glabrous; flowers 5–15, in corymb.   86 R. henryi
+ Leaflets leathery; petals abaxially pubescent; flowers numerous, in compound corymb.   79 R. lasiosepala
40 (18) Leaflets more than 2 cm.   (41)
+ Leaflets less than 1.5(–2) cm.   (64)
41 (40) Leaflets doubly serrate at margin.   (42)
+ Leaflets simply serrate at margin.   (47)
42 (41) Branches prickly and setose.   (43)
+ Branches only prickly, not bristly and setose.   (44)
43 (42) Leaflets 7–9, oblong or broadly lanceolate, abaxially puberulous and glandular punctate, apex acute or rounded-obtuse; petals deep pink; hip subglobose or ovoid; sepals persistent.   30 R. davurica
+ Leaflets 5–7, ovate, elliptic, or obovate, abaxially pubescent, not glandular punctate, apex rounded-obtuse, rarely acute; petals white; hip pyriform or ellipsoid; sepals deciduous.   21 R. albertii
44 (42) Leaflets abaxially pubescent or subglabrous.   (45)
+ Leaflets abaxially pubescent or subglabrous and glandular.   (46)
45 (44) Prickles straight, stout; leaflets 7–9, oblong or elliptic, abaxially subglabrous, apex rounded- obtuse or acute.   34 R. oxyacantha
+ Prickles broad, plain; leaflets 7–11, elliptic or ovate-oblong, abaxially pubescent, apex acute, rarely rounded-obtuse.   40 R. sweginzowii
46 (44) Leaflets 5–9, flowers in lax corymb; styles free, slightly exserted.   24 R. setipoda
+ Leaflets usually 7; flowers in corymb-panicle; styles connate, exserted.   82 R. ludingensis
47 (41) Leaflets abaxially glabrous or subglabrous.   (48)
+ Leaflets abaxially pubescent or along midvein and lateral veins pubescent.   (56)
48 (47) Branches with hooked prickles.   (49)
+ Branches with straight prickles.   (50)
49 (48) Leaflets 5–9, broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate; flowers several or numerous, rarely solitary; petals white, rarely pinkish; hip red or dark purple, subglobose, with sepals deciduous when ripe.   20 R. beggeriana
+ Leaflets 7–9, elliptic, oblong, or ovate, rarely obovate; flowers (1 or)3–6; petals white or pink; hip red, oblong or ovoid, with persistent sepals.   35 R. laxa
50 (48) Old branches prickly, sometimes densely setose.   (51)
+ Old branches only prickly, usually not setose.   (52)
51 (50) Branchlets densely bristly; pedicel 1.2–3 cm.   42 R. persetosa
+ Branchlets often only prickly; pedicel shorter, 5–10 mm.   37 R. bella
52 (50) Prickles broad, plain, scattered.   (53)
+ Prickles slender, straight, rarely few or absent.   (54)
53 (52) Petals red; flowers in corymb; sepals caudate, leaflike; pedicel and hypanthium often glandular, rarely smooth.   26 R. caudata
+ Petals white; flowers compound corymb; sepals pinnately lobed; hypanthium prickly abaxially.   94 R. kweichowensis
54 (52) Leaflets 9–15, elliptic or oblong, apex acute or shortly acuminate; petals white; pedicel 2–4 cm.   44 R. murielae
+ Leaflets 7–9(–15), ovate, long elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, acuminate, or rounded-obtuse; petals pink or deep red; pedicel 1.5–3 cm.   (55)
55 (54) Leaflets 7–15, ovate or long elliptic, apex acute or rounded-obtuse; petals pink; flowers solitary to several, 2–3.5 cm in diam.; sepals, pedicel, and hypanthium often smooth.   52 R. sertata
+ Leaflets 7(–9), ovate or ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate or acute; petals deep red; flowers solitary, rarely 2 or 3, 3.5–5 cm in diam.; pedicel and hypanthium usually glabrous, or sparsely glandular-pubescent.   36 R. saturata
56 (47) Flowers numerous in corymb.   (57)
+ Flowers solitary, rarely 2 or 3.   (60)
57 (56) Pedicel and hypanthium glabrous; leaflets 7–9, ovate or oblong, rarely long elliptic-ovate; petals pink; styles free.   28 R. banksiopsis
+ Pedicel and hypanthium glandular-pubescent; leaflets 5–9, oblong-ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate; petals pink or white; styles free or connate.   (58)
58 (57) Petals pink; styles free, slightly exserted.   27 R. davidii
+ Petals white; styles connate in column.   (59)
59 (58) Leaflets (5–)7–9, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–4.5 cm.   77 R. helenae
+ Leaflets 5–7, ovate to oblong-ovate, 1.5–3.6 cm.   68 R. taiwanensis
60 (56) Pedicel and hypanthium often glandular-pubescent, rarely glabrous.   (61)
+ Pedicel and hypanthium glabrous.   (62)
61 (60) Leaflets 7–13, ovate, elliptic, or oblong-ovate, apex acute or rounded-obtuse; petals deep red; sepals often pinnately lobed; hip orange-red or purple-red, oblong-ovoid or ovoid, to 5 cm.   41 R. moyesii
+ Leaflets 9–11(–13), oblong or elliptic-ovate, apex acute, rarely rounded-obtuse; petals red; sepals entire; hip deep red, oblong-ovoid or long ovoid, 1.5–3 cm.   43 R. macrophylla
62 (60) Leaflets oblong or broadly lanceolate, abaxially usually glandular, apex acute or rounded- obtuse.   30 R. davurica
+ Leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, abaxially eglandular.   (63)
63 (62) Leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate or acute; flowers solitary, rarely 2, pedicel 1.5–2.5 cm.   36 R. saturata
+ Leaflets ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate or caudate; flowers 2; pedicel 0.5–1 cm.   39 R. sinobiflora
64 (40) Leaflets doubly serrate at margin.   (65)
+ Leaflets simply serrate, rarely partly doubly serrate at margin.   (77)
65 (64) Leaflets abaxially glabrous, not glandular; branches prickly, bristly, or setose; leaflets (5–)7–9(–11), suborbicular or oblong-ovate, flowers solitary, or 2 or 3 and fasciculate; petals yellow, white, or pink; hip subglobose, black.   2 R. spinosissima
+ Leaflets abaxially glandular or pubescent; branches prickly, sometimes also bristly and setose; leaflets 5–15, oblong, obovate, ovate, or elliptic; flowers 1–5; petals white, yellow, pink, or red; hip obovoid or subglobose, red or red-brown.   (66)
66 (65) Branches prickly, bristly, and setose.   (67)
+ Branches only prickly, not bristly and setose.   (70)
67 (66) Leaflets densely pubescent on both surfaces, abaxially glandular; leaflets 7–9(–13), oblong or obovate; petals 4, white; hip red, subglobose.   18 R. sikangensis
+ Leaflets adaxially glabrous; abaxially pubescent, 5–13, ovate, elliptic, obovate, or oblong; petals 5, white or yellow; hip red, dark purple, or red-brown, globose, subglobose, or obovoid.   (68)
68 (67) Leaflets 11–13, elliptic or oblong; petals white; hip red-brown, obovoid.   12 R. tsinglingensis
+ Leaflets 5–9, oblong, ovate, elliptic, or obovate; petals white or yellow; hip red or dark purple, globose or subglobose.   (69)
69 (68) Leaflets oblong, abaxially glandular; flower with bracts; petals white; hip red, globose.   55 R. tibetica
+ Leaflets ovate, elliptic, or obovate, abaxially glandular or pubescent; flower without bracts; petals white or yellow; hip dark purple, subglobose.   5 R. kokanica
70 (66) Leaflets hairy on both surfaces or only abaxially hairy.   (71)
+ Leaflets abaxially glabrous or subglabrous.   (73)
71 (70) Leaflets abaxially brown hirsute, densely so along veins, elliptic or oblong-elliptic.   33 R. fargesiana
+ Leaflets pubescent on both surfaces, broadly ovate, obovate, ovate, or elliptic.   (72)
72 (71) Leaflets broadly ovate or obovate; flower double, solitary, rarely several, without bracts.   10 R. foetida
+ Leaflets ovate or elliptic; flowers 3–5 in corymb, with 3–5 bracts.   31 R. hezhangensis
73 (70) Leaflets apically acute or rounded-obtuse.   (74)
+ Leaflets apically rounded-obtuse or truncate.   (75)
74 (73) Leaflets (7–)9–15, elliptic, elliptic-obovate, or long elliptic, abaxially glandular, margin obtusely serrate; petals yellowish; hip black-brown, subglobose.   9 R. primula
+ Leaflets 9–11, ovate or elliptic, abaxially pubescent or glabrous, margin acutely serrate; petals pink; hip red, obovoid.   11 R. graciliflora
75 (73) Sepals and petals 4, leaflets obovate, abaxially not glandular or only glandular along veins.   19 R. zhongdianensis
+ Sepals and petals 5; leaflets ovate or obovate, abaxially sparsely glandular or not glandular.   (76)
76 (75) Styles free, slightly exserted; leaflets 5–7(–9), subrounded, ovate or obovate, abaxially not or sometimes glandular-pubescent.   46 R. forrestiana
+ Styles connate, exserted; leaflets usually 7, obovate, abaxially sparsely glandular- pubescent.   80 R. deqenensis
77 (64) Leaflets abaxially glabrous, rarely pubescent when young and wholly soon glabrate.   (78)
+ Leaflets abaxially or only along midvein pubescent.   (91)
78 (77) Branches prickly, bristly, and setose.   (79)
+ Branches only prickly, not bristly and setose.   (81)
79 (78) Leaflets entire near base of margin, 7–11, elliptic or ovate; petals pink; hip bright red.   3 R. farreri
+ Leaflets serrate from base to apex, 5–13, suborbicular to ovate, elliptic, or obovate; petals white or yellow; hip black or purple-red.   (80)
80 (79) Leaflets (5–)7–9(–11), suborbicular or oblong-ovate; petals white, pink, or yellow; hip black.   2 R. spinosissima
+ Leaflets 5–13, ovate, elliptic, or obovate; petals yellow; hip purple-red.   7 R. hugonis
81 (78) Prickles slender, straight; styles free.   (82)
+ Prickles dilated at base; styles connate, exserted.   (85)
82 (81) Leaflets serrate from base to apex, 9–15, elliptic, oblong, or obovate, apex mostly acute; petals pink; hip densely prickly.   93 R. roxburghii
+ Leaflets entire near base of margin, 5–13, elliptic, ovate-elliptic, suborbicular, oblong, or broadly obovate, apex mostly rounded-obtuse or truncate; petals pink or white; hip glabrous or stipitate glandular.   (83)
83 (82) Branches with prickles often in pairs; leaflets 7–11(–13), oblong or broadly obovate; petals white; hip red.   15 R. morrisonensis
+ Branches sparsely prickly; leaflets 5–11, elliptic, ovate-elliptic, or suborbicular, obovate, or broadly elliptic; petals pink; hip deep red or reddish.   (84)
84 (83) Leaflets 7–15, elliptic or ovate-elliptic, pedicel 1.5–3 cm; hip deep red, ovoid.   52 R. sertata
+ Leaflets 5–9, suborbicular, obovate or broadly elliptic; pedicel 1–1.5 cm; hip reddish, subglobose.   53 R. webbiana
85 (81) Styles connate, exserted.   (86)
+ Styles free, slightly exserted.   (87)
86 (85) Leaflets usually 7, obovate or oblong; flowers 2 or 3 and fasciculate, simple.   84 R. shangchengensis
+ Leaflets 5–7, elliptic, rarely oblong; flowers double, 10–15 in panicle.   71 R. miyiensis
87 (85) Leaflets serrate from base to apex at margin.   (88)
+ Leaflets entire near base of margin.   (89)
88 (87) Prickles straight; leaflets 7–13, broadly ovate or suborbicular, rarely elliptic, margin obtusely serrate; petals yellow; hip purple-brown; sepals persistent.   8 R. xanthina
+ Prickles hooked; leaflets 5–9, broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate, margin acutely serrate; petals white or pinkish; hip red at first, then becoming black-purple; sepals deciduous.   20 R. beggeriana
89 (87) Branches with prickles often in pairs; leaflets 7–11, oblong or broadly obovate, apex truncate; petals 4, white; hip red, glabrous outside.   15 R. morrisonensis
+ Branches sparsely prickly; leaflets 5–9, suborbicular or ovate, apex rounded-obtuse; petals 5, yellow or white, rarely pink; hip deep red or purple-brown, glandular- pubescent or glabrous outside.   (90)
90 (89) Leaflets 5–7, suborbicular, obovate, or oblong; petals yellow; flowers without bracts; hip glabrous.   6 R. platyacantha
+ Leaflets (5–)7(–9), suborbicular or ovate; petals white, rarely pink; flowers with bracts present; hip densely glandular-pubescent.   54 R. fedtschenkoana
91 (77) Branches prickly, sometimes densely bristly or setose.   (92)
+ Branches with straight, slender or broad, plain prickles, not bristly and setose.   (98)
92 (91) Leaflets serrate from base to apex at margin.   (93)
+ Leaflets serrate at upper margin, entire at lower margin.   (95)
93 (92) Petals 4, white; hip bright red or yellow; fruiting pedicel short, thickened.   14 R. omeiensis
+ Petals 5, white or pinkish white; fruiting pedicel slender, not thickened.   (94)
94 (93) Branchlets densely prickly; leaflets 7–11; petals pinkish white.   4 R. koreana
+ Branchlets sparsely prickly, occasionally bristly; leaflets 11–13; petals white.   12 R. tsinglingensis
95 (92) Leaflets densely pubescent on both surfaces, 5–9(–11), oblong-obovate or obovate; petals white; hip red; fruiting pedicel slender.   17 R. mairei
+ Leaflets only abaxially pubescent, 7–15, elliptic, oblong, ovate, or obovate; petals pinkish, yellowish, or white; hip orange-yellow or red; fruiting pedicel stout or slender.   (96)
96 (95) Sepals deciduous when fruit ripens; leaflets 7–15, elliptic or oblong, apex obtuse or acute; petals pinkish; pedicel and hypanthium often glandular-pubescent.   22 R. prattii
+ Sepals persistent; leaflets 7–13, ovate or obovate, apex truncate, rounded-obtuse or acute; petals yellowish or white; pedicel and hypanthium glabrous or villous.   (97)
97 (96) Leaflets 7–9(–13), obovate or oblong-obovate; petals yellowish; hip orange-yellow; fruiting pedicel turgid at base.   13 R. taronensis
+ Leaflets 7–9(–11), ovate or obovate, rarely obovate-oblong; petals white, hip red; fruiting pedicel slender.   16 R. sericea
98 (91) Leaflets densely pubescent on both surfaces; 7–13, obovate or broadly elliptic; petals red; hip sparsely glandular prickly, rarely glabrous.   95 R. praelucens
+ Leaflets abaxially or only along veins pubescent, 5–11; petals white or red; hip usually prickly.   (99)
99 (98) Leaflets apically acute or acuminate, rarely rounded-obtuse.   (100)
+ Leaflets apically usually rounded-obtuse, rarely acute.   (102)
100 (99) Flowers solitary, or 3–5 in cyme; without bracts; petals white.   66 R. transmorrisonensis
+ Flowers numerous in corymb or rarely in panicle; petals red or white.   (101)
101 (100) Leaflets ovate, obovate, or suborbicular, apex rounded-obtuse; petals red; flowers in corymb, rarely in panicle, with many bracts in 2 whorls: one of ovate bracts, other one of lanceolate ones; styles free, slightly exserted.   47 R. multibracteata
+ Leaflets oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, apex shortly acuminate; petals white; flowers in corymb; bracts caducous, narrowly lanceolate; styles connate, exserted.   77 R. helenae
102 (99) Sepals deciduous when fruit ripens; leaflets 7–9(–11).   23 R. willmottiae
+ Sepals persistent; leaflets 5–9.   (103)
103 (102) Bracts 3–5, leaflike, ovate, persistent; leaflets usually 5, rarely 3 or 7.   48 R. calyptopoda
+ Bracts 1 or 2, membranous, ovate-lanceolate, deciduous, rarely persistent; leaflets 7–9.   (104)
104 (103) Leaflets serrate from base to apex at margin; petals pink; pedicel not exceeding 1 cm; hip ovoid; prickles shorter   51 R. giraldii
+ Leaflets entire near base of margin; petals reddish; pedicel 1–1.5 cm; hip subglobose; prickles longer, yellowish.   53 R. webbiana

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