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Pakistan | Family List | Gentianaceae

15. Swertia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 226. (1753). Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 107 (1754), Griseb., Gen. et sp. Gentian. 330. 1839, in DC. Prodr. 9:131. 1845, Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 121. 1883, Grossh. in Komarov, Fl. U.R.S.S. 18: 458. 1967, R.R. Stewart in Nasir & Ali (eds.), Ann. Catalogue Vasc. Pl. Pak. Kashmir, 561. 1972, Garg, Gent. N.W. Him. 163. 1987, Shah in Sc. Khybar, 3: 19.1990.

J. Shah,

Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan

Swertia longifolia

Credit: M. Rafiq

  • Frasera Walt.
  • Monobothrium Hochst.

    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs ranging from 2-180 cm. Stem branched or not, cylindrical, lineolate, angular or quadrangular, winged or not, glabrous or pubescent. Basal leaves rosulate or not, elliptic-spathulate to spathulate, oblong to lincar-oblong or obovate to cuneate, obtuse, acute or apiculate, glabrous, glaucous or pubescent, margin entire or rarely lacinulate. Cauline leaves whorled, opposite or alternate, free or connate, variable shape and texture l ike the basal leaves. Inflorescence paniculate, cymose, corymbose, solitary. Flowers pedicellate, bracteate, bracteolate, tetramerous pentmmrous, complete, bisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic to un-equal calyx lobes. Calyx free or connate at the base rarely subpanulate or campanulate, lobes linear to narrowly ovate, obovate, spathulate to sub-spathulate, acute or obtuse, glabrous-pubescent, entire rarely ulate. Corolla white to bluish-white, pale green or dirty green, yellow, rarely reddish, rotate, rarely sub-campanulate to campanulate, lobes narrowly ovate to ovate or elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong cuneate or obovate, acute, acuminate, caudate, apiculate, mucronate or obtuse. Glands vary in shape, fimbriate or not, 1 or 2 per corolla segment. Stamens epipetalous, free rarely connate at the base, filaments filiform, subulate, flattened, glabrous or pubescent, anthers ovate to oblong-ovate, obtuse rarely apiculate. Ovary bicarpellary syncarpous, placentation parietal, style absent or present, vary from linear-oblong to sub-oblong or orbicular to sub-orbicular. Fruit a capsule. Seeds vary from warted to annular winged to polyhedral winged, flat, rounded, ovoid or oblong.

    A genus of c. 148 species.

    Almost cosmopolitan but not in South America, Australia, Greenland, Iceland, Britain.

    1 Plants perennial. Cauline leaves opposite, more or less connate   (2)
    + Plants annual or biennial, cauline leaves opposite but not connate   (5)
    2 (1) Seeds corrugate cristate   (3)
    + Seeds annular winged   (4)
    3 (2) Flowers pentamerous. Glands two per corolla lobe, saccate, fimbriate   3 Swertia petiolata
    + Flowers tetramerous. Gland one per corolla lobe, saccate, fimbriate   4 Swertia longifolia
    4 (2) Corolla lobes elliptic-oblong to oblong. Tube formed by the connation of the cauline leaves around the internode 1-3 cm long   1 Swertia speciosa
    + Corolla lobes ovate. Tube formed by the connation of the cauline leaves around the internode 1-5 mm   2 Swertia thomsonii
    5 (1) Cauline leaves cordate-ovate   (6)
    + Cauline leaves linear to narrowly ovate   (7)
    6 (5) Gland one per corolla lobe, naked   10 Swertia cordata
    + Gland one per corolla lobe, pocket-shaped, with compound fimbriae   9 Swertia alata
    7 (5) Glands two per corolla lobe   5 Swertia tetragona
    + Gland one per corolla lobe   (8)
    8 (7) Gland pocket-shaped, fimbriae compound   8 Swertia angustifolia
    + Gland horse-shoe shaped   (9)
    9 (8) Stamens with flattened filaments, fused with each other at the base of corolla   7 Swertia ciliata
    + Stamens with flattened filaments but not fused with corolla   6 Swertia paniculata

  • List of lower taxa


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