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Solanaceae A. L. Jussieu

茄科

WILLIAM G. D’ARCY and CHING-I PENG

Solanum lasiocarpum

Credit: HAST

Herbs, shrubs, small trees, or climbers. Stems and leaves with included phloem, sometimes prickly or thorny; hairs simple, branched, or stellate, sometimes glandular. Leaves alternate, solitary or paired, simple or pinnately compound, entire, dentate, lobed, or divided; stipules wanting. Inflorescences terminal and overtopped by continuing axes but usually appearing axillary, extra-axillary, or leaf opposed, often apparently umbellate, racemose, paniculate, clustered, or solitary flowers. Flowers mostly bisexual, mostly 5-merous; calyx mostly lobed partway; petals united; stamens inserted within corolla, alternating with the lobes, alike or 1 or more reduced, the anthers dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores; ovary 2-5-locular, the placentation mostly axile with numerous ovules, the style single, terminal. Fruit a berry or capsule; seeds with copious endosperm, the embryo mostly curved, the fruiting calyx mostly persistent, often becoming enlarged.

About 95 genera with 2300 species; best represented in western tropical America, widespread in temperate and tropical regions; in Taiwan 10 genera (seven introduced), 30 species and one variety. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals, medicinals or crop plants. Among these are eggplant, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, petunias, and tobacco.

Kuang, K. Z., A. M. Lu, C. Y. Wu & S. C. Huang. 1978. Solanaceae. In K.-Z Kuang & A.-M. Lu (eds.), Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 67(1):1-175.

Zhang, Z. Y., A. M. Lu and W. D'Arcy. 1994. Solanaceae. In Z. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven (eds.), Flora of China 17: 300-322.


KEY TO GENERA

1 Flowers more than 5 cm long, solitary; fruit hard, dry, often prickly or tuberculate, more than 1 cm across.   (2)
+ Flowers less than 5 cm long, solitary or in inflorescences; fruit juicy or fleshy, a glabrous or pubescent, smooth berry, mostly less than 2 cm across.   (3)
       
2 (1) Flowers more than 20 cm long; calyx persistent or withering; ovary 2- locular; leaves entire; shrubs or trees.   Brugmansia
+ Flowers less than 20 cm long; calyx circumscissile; ovary 4-locular; leaves mostly lobed, toothed, or sinuate; herbs or shrubs.   Datura
       
3 (1) Calyx with 10 conspicuous teeth; fruit a red berry.   Lycianthes
+ Calyx with 5 (-8) teeth or none; fruit various.   (4)
       
4 (3) Corolla campanulate or tubular; fruit a glabrous, red berry.   (5)
+ Corolla rotate, the limb and lobes wide spreading or reflexed; fruit glabrous or pubescent, variously colored.   (6)
       
5 (4) Corolla yellow-orange, unarmed herb; leaves mostly more than 2 cm wide.   Tubocapsicum
+ Corolla white or blue; often armed shrub; leaves mostly less than 2 cm wide.   Lycium
       
6 (4) Corolla yellow or white; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; herbs.   (7)
+ Corolla white, blue, or purple; anthers with terminal pores; herbs, shrubs, or trees.   Solanum
       
7 (6) Calyx lobes minute less than 1 mm long; fruit with dry spaces inside.   Capsicum
+ Calyx lobes evident, more than 2 mm long; fruit solid, moist or juicy.   (8)
       
8 (7) Leaves much lobed or dissected; calyx hardly accrescent, not envelopeing the fruit; corolla lobes slender; anthers coherent by lateral hairs.   Lycopersicon
+ Leaves entire, toothed, or shallowly lobed; calyx accrescent and enveloping the fruit; corolla subentire; anthers free, glabrous.   (9)
       
9 (8) Fruiting calyx with thickened angles (ribs), bristly soft emergences that appear triangular on drying, or with both.   Physaliastrum
+ Fruiting calyx lacking enations on ribs or walls, angles sometimes prominent but not thickened.   Physalis

Lower Taxa


 

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