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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Aquifoliaceae

1. Ilex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 125. 1753.

冬青属 dong qing shu

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

The genus is classified into three subgenera. Ilex subg. Byronia (Endlicher) Loesener has only one species, I. polypyrena, and I. subg. Prinos includes 12 species. All other species belong to I. subg. Ilex and they are grouped into six sections.

Key 5 (I. sect. Pseudoaquifolium S. Y. Hu)

1 Pyrenes abaxially 3-striate and sulcate or not, or rarely sulcate only, endocarp leathery, rarely woody, or subwoody; branchlets usually subquadrangular, rarely angular, subterete, or terete   (2)
+ Pyrenes abaxially usually striate and not sulcate, rarely striate and sulcate, or not striate or sulcate and smooth, or ridged, endocarp usually leathery, rarely woody; current year’s branchlets usually longitudinally angular and sulcate, or angular and ridged, second to third year’s terete   (8)
2 (1) Female inflorescence: 1-5-flowered cyme, fasciculate or pseudopaniculate.   146 I. stewardii
+ Female inflorescence: 1(-3)-flowered cyme, fasciculate, rarely solitary, or pseudopaniculate   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade papery or thinly leathery, rarely membranous; persistent stigma capitate or thickly discoid   (4)
+ Leaf blade leathery; persistent stigma mammilliform, cylindric, or discoid   (5)
4 (3) Branchlets, leaf blades, petioles, and inflorescences densely hirsute; leaf blade thickly papery, papery, or membranous, elliptic, oblong, obovate, or narrowly ovate, margin sparsely and sharply serrulate or subentire.   147 I. pubescens
+ Branchlets, petioles, and inflorescences sparsely puberulent; leaf blade thinly leathery or papery, elliptic, or obovate-oblong to ovate-oblong, margin entire or undulate and shallowly serrate distally.   148 I. hainanensis
5 (3) Persistent stigma mammilliform or cylindric   (6)
+ Persistent stigma discoid   (7)
6 (5) Branchlets densely lenticellate; leaf blade margin entire, abaxially inconspicuously minutely glandular punctate; persistent calyx 4- or 5-lobed; pyrenes 5.   149 I. mamillata
+ Branchlets not lenticellate; leaf blade margin entire or inconspicuously serrate apically, not glandular punctate abaxially; persistent calyx 6-lobed; pyrenes 6.   150 I. wuana
7 (5) Shrubs, 1-2 m tall; leaf blade leathery, linear or narrowly lanceolate, 6-9 × ca. 0.8 cm, margin minutely obtusely serrate, lateral veins obscure; fruit 1 or 2 per fascicle.   151 I. xiaojinensis
+ Trees, ca. 18 m tall; leaf blade thickly leathery, broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, 5-10 × 2.5-5 cm, margin entire, lateral veins 10-13 pairs, adaxially obscure, abaxially conspicuous; fruit 4-6 per fascicle.   152 I. qingyuanensis
8 (1) Fruiting pedicel 1-2.5 mm and shorter than diam. of fruit, or 6-9 mm and longer than diam. of fruit; female inflorescence: cyme solitary or few fascicled   (9)
+ Fruiting pedicel (2-)3-8(-20) mm, usually longer than or equaling diam. of fruit, rarely shorter; female inflorescence: cyme usually fasciculate, rarely solitary, or few fascicled   (14)
9 (8) Fruiting pedicel 6-9 mm, fruit compressed globose, ca. 3 mm in diam..   192 I. lihuaensis
+ Fruiting pedicel 1-2.5 mm, shorter than diam. of fruit   (10)
10 (9) Leaf blade papery or thinly leathery, oblong or elliptic, rarely obovate or rhomboid, 1-2.5 cm, base cuneate; branchlets, leaves adaxially on midvein, and petioles densely pubescent.   187 I. lohfauensis
+ Leaf blade leathery or thickly leathery, obovate, obovate-oblong, or ovate, base obtuse or broadly cuneate; branchlets, leaves adaxially on midvein, and petioles puberulent   (11)
11 (10) Leaf blade apically truncate-rounded, retuse, or emarginate, with triangular acumen, margin entire except for 1(or 2) pair of teeth at apex.   188 I. bidens
+ Leaf blade apically cordate, emarginate, retuse, rounded, obtuse, or shortly acuminate, margin entire   (12)
12 (11) Leaf blade 1-1.8 × 0.6-1.2 cm, apex cordate, retuse; peduncles of male inflorescence longer than pedicels; rudimentary ovary globose, apex flat.   189 I. chamaebuxus
+ Leaf blade 2-4 × 1-2.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate, rounded, obtuse, retuse, or emarginate; peduncles of male inflorescence nearly equaling pedicels; rudimentary ovary apically rostellate or depressed   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade abaxially deeply colored punctate; rudimentary ovary pulvinate, rostellate; fruit compressed globose, 3-4 mm in diam., persistent stigma discoid, convex.   190 I. championii
+ Leaf blade abaxially not punctate; rudimentary ovary conical, center depressed; fruit globose, ca. 5 mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid, shallowly 4- or 5-lobed.   191 I. hanceana
14 (8) Fruit 4-6(-8) mm in diam., persistent stigma capitate or mammilliform, rarely columnar, style usually evident   (15)
+ Fruit (1.5-)3-5 mm in diam., style usually absent, persistent stigma usually thinly to thickly discoid, sometimes capitate, rarely mammilliform, or crested   (28)
15 (14) Leaf blade not punctate, apex usually acuminate, sometimes acute, or obtuse, never retuse   (16)
+ Leaf blade abaxially punctate, apex usually acuminate, sometimes rounded or retuse   (22)
16 (15) Shrubs or trees   (17)
+ Trees   (18)
17 (16) Leaf blade subleathery, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 3-6 × 0.5-1.4 cm, margin subentire, usually 1- or 2-serrulate near apex; male inflorescences: 3-flowered cymes, fasciculate, flowers 5- or 6-merous, calyx cupular, rudimentary ovary pulvinate or subglobose; pyrenes abaxially and laterally longitudinally striate and sulcate.   153 I. metabaptista
+ Leaf blade thickly leathery, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 5-9 × 2-3.5 cm, margin entire; male inflorescences: 1-flowered cymes, fasciculate, flowers 5-8-merous, calyx patelliform, rudimentary ovary conical; pyrenes smooth, with a single slender ridge abaxially.   154 I. elmerrilliana
18 (16) Branchlets, petioles, and fruiting pedicels glabrous, puberulent, or glabrescent   (19)
+ Branchlets, petioles, and pedicels puberulent or pubescent   (20)
19 (18) Leaf blade thickly leathery, oblong or obovate-oblong, 15-25 × 5-7 cm, lateral veins 12-15 pairs; fruit densely yellow punctate, pyrenes 5 or 6, ellipsoidal.   155 I. dolichopoda
+ Leaf blade leathery, elliptic or broadly elliptic, 7.5-10 × 3.5-5.5 cm, lateral veins 6-8 pairs; fruit not punctate, pyrenes 4 or 5, lanceolate.   156 I. shimeica
20 (18) Ovary densely pubescent; leaf blade narrowly elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 4.5-6 × 1.4-2.1 cm.   157 I. jiaolingensis
+ Ovary glabrous; leaf blade oblong, oblong-elliptic, ovate-oblong, or obovate   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blade leathery to thickly leathery, ovate-oblong or obovate, 4-8.5 × 1.2-3.3 cm, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, indistinct on both surfaces; pyrenes 4 or 5.   158 I. memecylifolia
+ Leaf blade leathery, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 5-11 × 2.3-4 cm, lateral veins 10-14 pairs, obscure on both surfaces; pyrenes 6.   159 I. sinica
22 (15) Leaf blade obcordate or obovate, apex rounded and/or retuse   (23)
+ Leaf blade not obcordate or obovate, apex shortly to long acuminate, rarely retuse   (24)
23 (22) Pyrenes 5 or 6(or 7), persistent stigma capitate; fruiting pedicel 8-10 mm, puberulent; leaf blade thickly leathery, lateral veins and reticulate veins indistinct on both surfaces.   160 I. tutcheri
+ Pyrenes 4, persistent stigma papillate; fruiting pedicel ca. 5 mm, glabrous; leaf blade leathery, lateral veins adaxially evident, abaxially slightly raised, reticulate veins obscure.   161 I. tamii
24 (22) Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, 0.8-2.2 cm wide; style ca. 1 mm, stigma pubescent.   162 I. salicina
+ Leaf blade not linear-lanceolate, 1.5-4.5 cm wide; persistent stigma glabrous   (25)
25 (24) Fruiting pedicel 12-17 mm, fruit ca. 5 mm in diam., minutely punctate, persistent stigma mammilliform or capitate; pyrenes 6, abaxially feathery striate and sulcate.   163 I. verisimilis
+ Fruiting pedicel 4-13 mm, fruit 4-7 mm in diam., not punctate, persistent stigma navel-shaped or mammilliform; pyrenes 4-6, smooth or striate and not sulcate, but not feathery (fruit and pyrenes not seen in I. retusifolia)   (26)
26 (25) Peduncles of male flowers 6-10 mm; persistent stigma mammilliform; leaf blade elliptic, oblong-elliptic, oblong-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, acumen not retuse.   164 I. cochinchinensis
+ Peduncles of male flowers 1.5-3 mm; stigma discoid or persistent stigma navel-shaped; leaf blade broadly elliptic, elliptic, ovate, or oblong, acumen usually retuse   (27)
27 (26) Branchlets puberulent; female flowers 4-merous; leaf blade broadly elliptic, 5-7 × 2-3 cm.   165 I. retusifolia
+ Branchlets glabrous; female flowers 6-8-merous; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 6-9 × 1.5-4.5 cm.   166 I. kobuskiana
28 (14) Margin of leaf blade serrate, serrulate, or crenulate, rarely entire; pyrenes 4-6, rarely 7   (29)
+ Margin of leaf blade usually entire, rarely subentire, or with 1 or 2 bristly teeth at distal end, or serrulate; pyrenes 4, rarely 2 or 5   (33)
29 (28) Infructescence a 1(or 3)-fruited cyme, pseudoracemose, or fasciculate   (30)
+ Infructescence a 1-fruited cyme, fasciculate   (31)
30 (29) Infructescence a 1(or 3)-fruited cyme, pseudoracemose, rarely pseudopaniculate, axis 5-8 mm; pyrenes 5-7, ellipsoidal, smooth, neither striate nor sulcate abaxially; leaf blade leathery, oblong, oblong-oblanceolate, elliptic, or obovate-elliptic, margin serrulate or serrate on distal 1/2-2/3.   182 I. forrestii
+ Infructescence a 1-fruited cyme, fasciculate, axis ca. 2 mm; pyrenes 4, 4- or 5-striate, not sulcate abaxially; leaf blade thinly leathery or thickly papery, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, margin crenulate.   183 I. cauliflora
31 (29) Apex of leaf blade shortly acuminate; pyrenes ellipsoidal-oblong.   186 I. tsiangiana
+ Apex of leaf blade caudate-acuminate, acumen 1-1.5 cm; pyrenes oblong   (32)
32 (31) Persistent stigma mammilliform; pyrenes 5 or 6, smooth, abaxially and laterally longitudinally 1-striate; leaf blade leathery.   184 I. wardii
+ Persistent stigma thickly discoid or discoid; pyrenes 4, abaxially smooth, not striate or sulcate; leaf blade papery.   185 I. estriata
33 (28) Leaf blade abaxially glandular punctate   (34)
+ Leaf blade abaxially not punctate   (39)
34 (33) Terminal buds, branchlets, petioles, and fruit densely gray-white puberulent-strigose.   167 I. strigillosa
+ Terminal buds, branchlets, and petioles puberulent, rarely pubescent or glabrous; fruit glabrous, rarely pubescent   (35)
35 (34) Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-elliptic, apex long acuminate or caudate-acuminate, not retuse   (36)
+ Leaf blade broadly elliptic, elliptic, subrhombic-elliptic, oblong-elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or obovate-elliptic, apex obtuse, rounded, or shortly acuminate, rarely retuse, acumen retuse   (37)
36 (35) Female inflorescences: 1-flowered cymes, fasciculate or pseudoracemose, flowers 4- or 5(or 6)-merous; pyrenes 4 or 5, abaxially 3-striate; leaf blade leathery or thickly leathery, apex caudate-acuminate.   168 I. longecaudata
+ Female inflorescences: 1-5-flowered cymes, fasciculate, flowers 4-merous; pyrenes 4, abaxially 5- or 6-striate; leaf blade thinly leathery, apex long acuminate.   169 I. kengii
37 (35) Male inflorescences 3-7-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade broadly elliptic or subrhombic-elliptic, 3-5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex abruptly shortly acuminate, acumen retuse.   170 I. goshiensis
+ Male inflorescences usually 3-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade elliptic, obovate-elliptic, subrhombic, oblong-elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, apex obtuse, rounded, or shortly acuminate, rarely retuse, acumen retuse   (38)
38 (37) Branchlets, terminal buds, and petioles pubescent; leaf blade elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or subrhombic, 2-4.5 × 1-2 cm; pyrenes oblong, reticulately striate, striae easily detached from endocarp.   171 I. buxoides
+ Branchlets, terminal buds, and petioles glabrous; leaf blade oblong-elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 4-5.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm; pyrenes broadly ellipsoidal, abaxially 3- or 4-striate, striae adhering to endocarp.   172 I. liangii
39 (33) Leaf blade broadly elliptic, apex obtuse or rounded; pyrenes abaxially palmately striate and sulcate.   173 I. saxicola
+ Leaf blade not broadly elliptic, apex acuminate; pyrenes abaxially longitudinally 3- or 4-striate, rarely reticulately striate, palmately striate, or not striate   (40)
40 (39) Fruiting pedicel 2-3 mm, shorter than diam. of fruit; pyrenes abaxially palmately striate and slightly sulcate; leaf blade papery.   174 I. guizhouensis
+ Fruiting pedicel equaling or longer than diam. of fruit; pyrenes abaxially longitudinally 3- or 4-striate, rarely reticulately striate, or not striate; leaf blade leathery, rarely thickly leathery   (41)
41 (40) Margin of leaf blade subentire, or entire, or with 1 or 2 bristly teeth at distal end, or serrulate   (42)
+ Margin of leaf blade entire   (44)
42 (41) Shrubs, 1-3(-5) m tall.   175 I. oligodonta
+ Trees, ca. 6 m tall   (43)
43 (42) Pyrenes ovoid, abaxially not striate or sulcate; leaf blade elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 5.5-9 × 2.7-4 cm, margin subentire, sometimes sparsely and inconspicuously serrulate.   176 I. nitidissima
+ Pyrenes oblong, abaxially 3-striate; leaf blade oblong or obovate-elliptic, 6-12 × 3-4.5 cm, margin entire on proximal half, serrulate with 1 or 2 pairs of teeth on distal half.   177 I. jinyunensis
44 (41) Current year’s branchlets and terminal buds puberulent, petioles pubescent or glabrous; leaf blade elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or ovate-elliptic   (45)
+ Branchlets, terminal buds, and petioles glabrous, current year’s branchlets sometimes puberulent; leaf blade ovate, obovate-oblong, ovate-oblong, elliptic-lanceolate, or ovate-elliptic   (46)
45 (44) Shrubs, ca. 2 m tall; persistent stigma thickly discoid; pyrenes 4 or 5, oblong-ellipsoidal, ca. 3.5 mm, abaxially 3- or 4-striate, not sulcate or shallowly sulcate.   178 I. sublongecaudata
+ Trees, to 12 m tall; persistent stigma capitate; pyrenes 4, ellipsoidal, ca. 4 mm, abaxially 3-striate, laterally smooth.   179 I. hayatana
46 (44) Leaf blade thickly leathery, base obtuse, rarely rounded, midvein slightly raised abaxially, flat adaxially, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs.   180 I. wilsonii
+ Leaf blade leathery, base rounded, rarely obtuse, adaxially opaque, midvein deeply impressed adaxially, lateral veins 9 or 10 pairs.   181 I. fukienensis

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