All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 11 Page 359 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Aquifoliaceae

1. Ilex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 125. 1753.

冬青属 dong qing shu

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

The genus is classified into three subgenera. Ilex subg. Byronia (Endlicher) Loesener has only one species, I. polypyrena, and I. subg. Prinos includes 12 species. All other species belong to I. subg. Ilex and they are grouped into six sections.

Key 2 (Ilex sect. Paltoria (Ruiz & Pavon) Maximowicz)

1 Leaf blade abaxially punctate; pyrenes 4, 3-5 mm in diam., abaxially usually smooth, striate, not sulcate   (2)
+ Leaf blade abaxially not punctate; pyrenes 4 or 5(or 6), 1-3 mm in diam., abaxially usually smooth, neither striate nor sulcate, rarely 1-striate, or 1-sulcate, or 3-striate and sulcate   (8)
2 (1) Branchlets usually zigzag; male cymes 1-3-flowered, rarely more flowered; pedicels equaling or slightly longer than peduncles; rudimentary ovary pyramidal.   38 I. triflora
+ Branchlets straight; male cymes 1-7-flowered, more than 1-flowered cymes with pedicels shorter than peduncles; rudimentary ovary subglobose or conical   (3)
3 (2) Flowers 4- or 5-merous; leaf blade ovate, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, or ovate-oblong, (2-)3-8 × (1-)2-4 cm; male cymes 1-7-flowered, solitary on current year’s branchlets, rarely fasciculate.   39 I. szechwanensis
+ Flowers 4-merous; leaf blade usually obovate or elliptic, rarely obovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 0.5-7 × 0.4-3 cm; male cymes fasciculate on current year’s branchlets or solitary   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade elliptic or broadly elliptic, 0.5-3 × 0.4-1.5 cm, petiole 2-4 mm   (5)
+ Leaf blade obovate, elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 1-7 × 0.5-3 cm, petiole usually longer than 4 mm   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blade broadly elliptic, 0.5-1.2 × 0.4-0.9 cm, apex obtuse or acute, base rounded or obtuse, midvein adaxially obscure.   40 I. subcrenata
+ Leaf blade elliptic, 1-3 × 0.8-1.5 cm, apex acute, cuspidate, base obtuse or broadly cuneate, midvein adaxially impressed.   41 I. yuana
6 (4) Leaf blade 1-3.5 × 0.5-1.5 cm; fruiting pedicel 4-6 mm; persistent stigma thickly discoid; pyrenes oblong-ellipsoidal, abaxially smooth, striate, not sulcate.   42 I. crenata
+ Leaf blade 2-7 × 1-3 cm; fruiting pedicel longer than 7 mm; pyrenes abaxially convex, striate, and slightly rugose or smooth and 5-striate   (7)
7 (6) Petioles 4-6 mm, lateral veins evident on both surfaces of leaves; fruit 9-11 mm in diam., persistent stigma discoid-mammilliform; pyrenes ellipsoidal, abaxially convex, striate, and slightly rugose.   43 I. viridis
+ Petioles 5-10 mm, lateral veins indistinct on both surfaces of leaves; fruit 7-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid; pyrenes ovoid-ellipsoidal, abaxially smooth, 5-striate.   44 I. maximowicziana
8 (1) Pyrenes abaxially smooth, longitudinally 1-striate; pedicel of female flower 4-4.5 cm; leaf blade 4-12.5 cm, petiole 1.5-2.5 cm.   45 I. pedunculosa
+ Pyrenes abaxially smooth, neither striate nor sulcate, rarely 3-striate and sulcate, or 1-sulcate; pedicel of female flower 0.2-1.5 cm; leaf blade 1-5.7 cm, petiole 2-8 mm   (9)
9 (8) Pyrenes 3-striate and sulcate, or 1-sulcate   (10)
+ Pyrenes smooth, neither striate nor sulcate   (11)
10 (9) Pyrenes 4, ellipsoidal, ca. 2 mm, ca. 1 mm in diam., abaxially longitudinally 1-sulcate; leaf blade ovate-oblong, apex long acuminate, base cuneate.   52 I. nanchuanensis
+ Pyrenes 4 or 5, oblong, 4-5 mm, 2.5-3 mm in diam., abaxially thickly 3-striate; leaf blade elliptic-ovate, apex acute or slightly obtuse, base gradually shortly attenuate or truncate to briefly cuneate.   53 I. shennongjiaensis
11 (9) Branchlets pubescent, puberulent, glabrescent, or glabrous; leaf blade elliptic or ovate-elliptic   (12)
+ Branchlets densely tomentose, densely villous, or densely pubescent; leaf blade ovate, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or obovate-oblong   (14)
12 (11) Fruit 7-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma discoid; fruiting pedicel 13-15 mm.   48 I. sugerokii
+ Fruit 4-5 mm in diam., persistent stigma mammilliform; fruiting pedicel 7-12 mm   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade thickly leathery, elliptic, 5-5.7 × 3-3.3 cm, apex acute or shortly acuminate; fruiting pedicel ca. 7 mm, fruit ca. 5 mm in diam..   46 I. reticulata
+ Leaf blade subleathery, elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 3-3.5 × 2-3 cm, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate; fruiting pedicel 8-12 mm, fruit 4-5 mm in diam..   47 I. subcoriacea
14 (11) Leaf blade obovate-oblong or oblong, 1-3 × 0.6-1.4 cm, apex rounded or obtuse, lower half of margin entire, upper half of margin crenulate-serrate; old branchlets gray-brown or smoky pubescent; fruiting pedicel ca. 6 mm.   49 I. rockii
+ Leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, 2-4.5 × 1-2.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate or acute and mucronate, margin crenulate-serrate, crenate-serrate, entire, or spinulose-serrate; branchlets densely tomentose, or densely golden yellow villous, older branchlets densely ferruginous tomentose; fruiting pedicel 5-15 mm   (15)
15 (14) Branchlets, leaf blades, petioles, and fruiting pedicels densely tomentose; leaf blade ovate or ovate-elliptic, apex shortly acuminate, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs, evident on both surfaces; fruiting pedicel 12-15 mm, nodose at middle; fruit 7-8 mm in diam.; pyrenes 5.   50 I. ludianensis
+ Branchlets, petioles, and leaf midvein adaxially densely pubescent, villous, or tomentose; leaf blade ovate, ovate-lanceolate, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic, apex acute and mucronate, lateral veins obscure on both surfaces; fruiting pedicel 5-15 mm, without node; fruit 5-6 mm in diam.; pyrenes 4.   51 I. yunnanensis

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  
  • Ilex.pdf
  • PDF

    Trees and shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador  
  • Ilex myricoides
  • Image/JPEG

  • Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |