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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Aquifoliaceae

1. Ilex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 125. 1753.

冬青属 dong qing shu

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

The genus is classified into three subgenera. Ilex subg. Byronia (Endlicher) Loesener has only one species, I. polypyrena, and I. subg. Prinos includes 12 species. All other species belong to I. subg. Ilex and they are grouped into six sections.


Key 3 (Ilex sect. Ilex)

1 Margin of leaf blade usually spinose, if not, then with 1 spine at apex   (2)
+ Margin of mature leaf blade never spinose   (18)
       
2 (1) Pyrenes 4, abaxially sulcate or ridged, irregularly rugose and pitted, endocarp bony, rarely stony, or woody   (3)
+ Pyrenes 2 or 4, rarely 1 or 3, abaxially striate and sulcate, rarely only striate, endocarp woody, rarely stony or leathery   (6)
       
3 (2) Leaf blade thickly leathery, quadrangular-oblong, margin with 1 or 2 spines per side, apex with 1 strong spine; fruiting pedicel 1.3-1.4 cm.   54 I. cornuta
+ Leaf blade thinly to thickly leathery, not quadrangular, margin 3-10 spines per side; fruiting pedicel 2-8 mm   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade thinly to thickly leathery, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or ovate-lanceolate, 6-12.5 cm, margin sharply serrate; male cymes 3-flowered; fruit 8-12 mm in diam., persistent stigma thickly discoid or nearly mammilliform.   55 I. hylonoma
+ Leaf blade leathery, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, 3-9 cm, margin spinose-dentate or spinulose-serrate in 3-10 pairs; male cymes 1-flowered; fruit 6-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped or thinly discoid   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, 4-9 × 1.5-2.8 cm, apex acuminate, spinose, margin spinose-dentate in 3-10 pairs; fruiting pedicel ca. 2 mm, fruit globose, 6-7 mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid; pyrenes abaxially longitudinally 1-ridged.   56 I. centrochinensis
+ Leaf blade ovate-elliptic or elliptic, 3-6 × 1.5-3 cm, apex acute, without spine, margin sparsely spinulose-serrate in 4-7 pairs; fruiting pedicel 4-8 mm, fruit globose, 7-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped or discoid; pyrenes abaxially not longitudinally 1-ridged.   57 I. zhejiangensis
       
6 (2) Prostrate shrubs, 20-30 cm tall; leaf blade hexangular-subrhombic, 1-3.2 × 0.7-1.5 cm, shiny, rugose adaxially; pyrene 1, abaxially palmately striate, not sulcate.   58 I. perryana
+ Erect shrubs or trees; leaf blade not hexangular-subrhombic, not rugose adaxially; pyrenes 2 or 4, rarely 1 or 3, abaxially striate and sulcate, rarely only striate   (7)
       
7 (6) Trees, rarely shrubs   (8)
+ Shrubs or small trees   (10)
       
8 (7) Pyrenes (1 or)2(-4), oblong-ellipsoidal or subglobose; leaf blade elliptic-oblong, elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, 4-10 cm, margin with 3-14 pairs of spines.   68 I. dipyrena
+ Pyrenes 3 or 4, ovoid-ellipsoidal, oblong, or ovoid; leaf blade oblong, ovate-oblong, ovate, or elliptic, 3.5-8 cm, margin with 2-8 pairs of spines   (9)
       
9 (8) Pyrenes 3, ovoid-ellipsoidal, ca. 5 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam.; leaf blade ovate-oblong, ovate, or elliptic, 5.5-8 cm, base subrounded or obtuse, margin with 4-8 pairs of spines, petiole 5-8 mm.   69 I. dabieshanensis
+ Pyrenes 4, oblong or ovoid, 6-8 mm, 4-5 mm in diam.; leaf blade oblong or ovate-oblong, 3.5-7 cm, base truncate or subcordate, margin with 2-5 pairs of large spines, petiole ca. 2 mm.   70 I. chengkouensis
       
10 (7) Pyrenes 1 or 2   (11)
+ Pyrenes 4   (14)
       
11 (10) Leaf blade oblong-elliptic, 7-8 × 2-2.5 cm, margin entire; fruit globose, 8-12 mm in diam., pyrenes 1 or 2, oblong, ca. 8 mm, ca. 5.5 mm in diam., striate and sulcate.   64 I. synpyrena
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate to rhombic, elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, 1.8-5.5 × 0.7-2.5 cm, apex and margin spinose-serrate; fruit obovoid-ellipsoidal or ellipsoidal, 3-7 mm in diam., pyrenes often 2, abaxially palmately striate and sulcate   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; fruit obovoid-ellipsoidal.   65 I. georgei
+ Leaf blade ovate to rhombic, or elliptic or ovate-elliptic; fruit ellipsoidal   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaf blade ovate to rhombic, apex acuminate, with spine ca. 3 mm, margin with 3 or 4 pairs of strong spines; pyrenes 2, ovoid or subglobose, 5-6 mm, 4-5 mm in diam..   66 I. bioritsensis
+ Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-elliptic, apex shortly acuminate or acute, with a weak spine, margin with 4-6 pairs of thin spines; pyrenes (1 or)2(or 3), obovoid, ca. 5 mm, ca. 3.5 mm in diam..   67 I. ciliospinosa
       
14 (10) Leaf blade thinly leathery, oblong-lanceolate, oblong-ovate, or narrowly oblong, 4.5-6 × 2-2.5 cm, petiole 3-9 mm; endocarp stony.   59 I. wugongshanensis
+ Leaf blade leathery, elliptic, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-6.5 × 0.5-3 cm, petiole 1-4 mm; endocarp woody   (15)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade elliptic, 1.5-3 × 0.7-1.5 cm, base acute, lateral veins adaxially impressed; branchlets and petioles glabrous; pyrenes abaxially palmately striate, not sulcate.   60 I. miguensis
+ Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base truncate, rounded, or obtuse, lateral veins adaxially not impressed; branchlets and petioles pubescent; pyrenes abaxially striate and sulcate, or striate but not sulcate   (16)
       
16 (15) Leaf blade basally obtuse, lateral veins 6 or 7 pairs, adaxially obscure, petiole 3-4 mm; fruit globose, 5-5.5 mm in diam., persistent stigma mammilliform.   61 I. euryoides
+ Leaf blade basally truncate or rounded, lateral veins 1-5 pairs, adaxially evident or obscure, petiole 1-2 mm; fruit depressed globose or globose, 7-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma discoid or navel-shaped   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-3 cm, margin with 1-3 pairs of spines, lateral veins 1-3 pairs, adaxially obscure; pyrenes obovoid or oblong, abaxially palmately striate and sulcate.   62 I. pernyi
+ Leaf blade ovate, 3-6.5 cm, margin with 3-7 pairs of spines, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, adaxially evident; pyrenes subglobose, abaxially palmately striate, not sulcate.   63 I. wenchowensis
       
18 (1) Fruit (3-)6-12(-26) mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid or discoid, rarely thickly discoid, sometimes navel-shaped; pyrenes irregularly rugose and/or pitted, rarely not rugose or pitted, usually abaxially striate and sulcate, rarely only striate or only sulcate, endocarp stony or woody, rarely bony, leathery or subwoody   (19)
+ Fruit (3-)4-6(-8) mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly to thickly discoid, rarely capitate, navel-shaped, or mammilliform; pyrenes sometimes irregularly rugose and/or pitted, usually not rugose or pitted, usually abaxially striate and sulcate, sometimes only striate, endocarp usually stony, sometimes woody, rarely bony or leathery   (40)
       
19 (18) Ovary and/or fruit pubescent   (20)
+ Ovary and/or fruit glabrous   (22)
       
20 (19) Fruit ovoid-globose, ca. 10 mm, ca. 8 mm in diam., persistent stigma thickly discoid; leaf blade obovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 7.5-10 cm, apex abruptly acuminate, base cuneate.   71 I. trichocarpa
+ Fruit globose or depressed globose, 5-11 mm, 7-12 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped or thinly discoid; leaf blade oblong to oblong-elliptic or elliptic, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base cuneate, obtuse, or rounded   (21)
       
21 (20) Fruit globose, 9-12 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped; leaf blade oblong to oblong-elliptic, 10-18 × 4.5-7.5 cm, lateral veins 14 or 15 pairs, and reticulate veins evident on both surfaces, petiole 2-2.2 cm.   72 I. kaushue
+ Fruit depressed globose, 7-8 mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid; leaf blade elliptic, rarely ovate-elliptic or lanceolate, 3-7 × 1.5-2.5 cm, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, and reticulate veins indistinct on both surfaces, petiole 3-6 mm.   73 I. pubilimba
       
22 (19) Leaf blade 8-36 × 4.5-13 cm   (23)
+ Leaf blade usually shorter than 11 cm, sometimes longer than 11 cm, usually less than 5 cm wide, rarely to 7.5 cm wide   (24)
       
23 (22) Large trees, to 20 m tall; leaf blade oblong or ovate-oblong, 8-19(-28) × 4.5-7.5(-9) cm, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate, base rounded or broadly cuneate; flowers yellowish green; fruit globose, ca. 7 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong-ellipsoidal, ca. 5 mm, abaxially longitudinally ridged.   74 I. latifolia
+ Shrub or small trees; leaf blade elliptic or oblong, (20-)30-36 × (8-)9-13 cm, apex acuminate or falcate-acuminate, base obtuse or broadly cuneate; flowers purple-red; fruit subglobose, ca. 8 mm in diam., pyrenes ellipsoidal, ca. 6 mm, abaxially longitudinally deeply sulcate.   75 I. perlata
       
24 (22) Branchlets, petioles, and fruiting pedicels glabrous, rarely fruiting pedicels puberulent, pubescent, or glabrescent or petioles puberulent (I. chingiana var. puberula)   (25)
+ Current year’s branchlets pubescent to glabrescent, not glabrous; petiole rarely glabrous; female flowers or fruit pedicel pubescent to glabrescent   (35)
       
25 (24) Fruit 11-26 mm in diam.; leaf blade thickly leathery, oblong, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or oblanceolate, 11-15 × 4-5.2 cm.   76 I. chingiana
+ Fruit rarely more than 12 mm in diam.; leaf blade usually leathery, rarely thickly leathery, or subleathery, ovate, obovate, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, or oblong-, obovate-, or lanceolate-elliptic, usually shorter than 11 cm and less than 4 cm wide   (26)
       
26 (25) Shrub or small trees   (27)
+ Medium-sized trees, 7-20 m tall   (29)
       
27 (26) Shrubs; leaf blade oblong-elliptic, 7-8.5 × 2-2.5 cm, margin sparsely crenate-serrate.   77 I. yangchunensis
+ Small trees; leaf blade elliptic, obovate, or obovate-elliptic, margin entire   (28)
       
28 (27) Leaf blade elliptic, apex shortly acuminate or obtuse, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, petiole 4-7 mm; fruit ca. 5 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong-obovoid, ca. 3 mm, ca. 2 mm in diam., abaxially palmately striate, not sulcate.   78 I. suzukii
+ Leaf blade obovate or obovate-elliptic, rarely oblanceolate, apex obtuse-rounded, lateral veins 6-9 pairs, petiole 10-15 mm; fruit 10-12 mm in diam., pyrenes broadly ellipsoidal, ca. 7 mm, ca. 4 mm in diam., abaxially irregularly rugose, pitted and striate.   79 I. integra
       
29 (26) Fruit globose, 10-15 mm in diam., densely tuberculate, or glandular punctate   (30)
+ Fruit oblong, obovoid-oblong, depressed globose, or globose, less than 9 mm in diam., not tuberculate or punctate   (32)
       
30 (29) Leaf blade lanceolate-elliptic, base acute to attenuate, lateral veins 7-9 pairs; fruit 1.2-1.5 cm in diam., pyrenes 6.   82 I. chengbuensis
+ Leaf blade ovate or obovate to elliptic, base obtuse or cuneate, rarely rounded, lateral veins 6-8, 10, or 11 pairs; fruit 1-1.2 cm in diam., pyrenes 4   (31)
       
31 (30) Leaf blade obovate-elliptic or elliptic, abaxially brown glandular punctate; fruit glandular punctate, pyrenes oblong, abaxially broadly sulcate, irregularly rugose and pitted.   80 I. tenuis
+ Leaf blade ovate or oblong-elliptic, abaxially not glandular punctate; fruit densely tuberculate, pyrenes ovoid-ellipsoidal, irregularly rugose and pitted, not sulcate abaxially.   81 I. subficoidea
       
32 (29) Fruit oblong or obovoid-oblong, 4-4.5 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong-ellipsoidal, ca. 3.5 mm, ca. 2 mm in diam..   83 I. oblonga
+ Fruit globose or depressed globose, 3-8 mm in diam., pyrenes ellipsoid, ovoid-globose, oblong, obovoid, or oblong-ellipsoid, 3-6 mm   (33)
       
33 (32) Fruit globose or depressed globose, 6-7 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped, pyrenes oblong or ellipsoid.   84 I. denticulata
+ Fruit globose, persistent stigma discoid, pyrenes oblong-ellipsoid, ovoid-globose, or obovoid   (34)
       
34 (33) Fruit 6-8 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong-ellipsoid or ovoid-globose, 5-6 mm, abaxially striate and sulcate; current year’s branchlets stout, longitudinally sharply angular; leaf blade narrowly elliptic or elliptic, 7.5-20 × 3-7.5 cm.   85 I. pentagona
+ Fruit 3-6 mm in diam., pyrenes obovoid, 3-4 mm, throughout striate and irregularly rugose and sulcate, or abaxially 1-sulcate, nearly smooth and laterally striate-rugose; branchlets slender, longitudinally ridged; leaf blade ovate-elliptic or elliptic, 2.5-8 × 1-3 cm.   86 I. tsangii
       
35 (24) Shrubs, ca. 2 m tall; leaf blade abaxially glandular punctate, lateral veins obscure on both surfaces.   87 I. occulta
+ Trees, 6-25 m tall; leaf blade abaxially usually not glandular punctate, lateral veins abaxially evident   (36)
       
36 (35) Trees, 20-25 m tall; leaf blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic; male inflorescences 1-flowered cymes, fasciculate   (37)
+ Small trees, 6-9 m tall; leaf blade obovate-elliptic, elliptic, obovate, obovate-lanceolate, oblong-elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or narrowly elliptic; male inflorescences 3-flowered cymes, fasciculate   (38)
       
37 (36) Branchlets densely pubescent; leaf blade elliptic, rarely lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, apex shortly acuminate, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs and reticulate veins obscure adaxially; fruit subglobose, persistent stigma discoid, endocarp woody.   88 I. nanningensis
+ Young branchlets puberulent or glabrescent; leaf blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic, apex abruptly shortly acuminate, lateral veins 8 or 9 pairs and reticulate veins raised on both surfaces; fruit globose, persistent stigma navel-shaped, endocarp stony.   89 I. uraiensis
       
38 (36) Branchlets and petioles densely puberulent, leaf midvein puberulent adaxially.   90 I. ningdeensis
+ Young branchlets pubescent to glabrescent, leaf midvein adaxially slightly pubescent or glabrous, petioles glabrous or minutely or sparsely puberulent   (39)
       
39 (38) Fruit ca. 10 mm in diam., persistent stigma navel-shaped, pyrenes broadly ellipsoidal, 6-7 mm, abaxially palmately striate and sulcate; leaf blade 8-13.5 × 3-4.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin undulate-crenulate.   91 I. nuculicava
+ Fruit 5-6 mm in diam., persistent stigma thinly discoid, flat, pyrenes subglobose, ca. 4 mm, rugose and irregularly striate and sulcate; leaf blade 2-7.5 × 1.5-3.5 cm, apex retuse, margin subentire or sparsely minutely serrate.   92 I. graciliflora
       
40 (18) Leaf blade usually subleathery, rarely thinly or thickly leathery, leathery, or papery, lateral veins adaxially usually impressed, rarely raised or flat; fruiting pedicel (2-)4-7(-10) mm   (41)
+ Leaf blade usually leathery, sometimes thinly leathery or papery, rarely thickly leathery, or subleathery, lateral veins adaxially obscure, flat (including evident ones), or slightly raised to raised, rarely slightly impressed; fruiting pedicel (1-)2-4(-8) mm   (50)
       
41 (40) Branchlets verrucose, verruculose, corky verruculose, or tuberculate; leaf blade 0.5-5 cm, rarely 7.5-9 cm   (42)
+ Branchlets not tuberculate; leaf blade 5-15.5 cm, rarely only 2-3 cm   (45)
       
42 (41) Prostrate shrubs; leaf blade obovate-elliptic, 0.5-2 × 0.3-0.9 cm, petiole 1-2 mm.   93 I. intricata
+ Erect shrubs or trees; leaf blade usually broadly elliptic, oblong-ovate, or ovate, rarely elliptic-lanceolate, obovate-elliptic, linear-lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-elliptic, petiole 4-20 mm   (43)
       
43 (42) Fruit 3-3.5 mm in diam.; leaf blade papery, broadly elliptic, rarely broadly obovate or broadly ovate, 0.5-1.7 × 0.5-1.2 cm, lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs, petiole 4-5 mm.   94 I. nothofagifolia
+ Fruit 4-5 mm in diam.; leaf blade leathery or subleathery, ovate-oblong, ovate, elliptic-lanceolate, obovate-elliptic, linear-lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-elliptic, (2-)4-9 × (0.7-)1-5.5 cm, lateral veins 5-18 pairs, petiole (0.5-)1-2 cm   (44)
       
44 (43) Pyrenes puberulent, fruit ca. 4 mm in diam.; leaf blade leathery, ovate-oblong or ovate, 7.5-9 × 4-5.5 cm, lateral veins 17 or 18 pairs, petiole 1.5-2 cm.   95 I. liana
+ Pyrenes glabrous, fruit ca. 5 mm in diam.; leaf blade subleathery, elliptic-lanceolate, obovate-elliptic, linear-lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-elliptic, (2-)4-5(-8) × (0.7-)1-2(-2.5) cm, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, petiole (0.5-)1-1.5 cm.   96 I. delavayi
       
45 (41) Small shrubs, ca. 1 m tall; leaf blade 2-3 × 0.7-1 cm, lateral veins 4 pairs, petiole 2-3 mm.   97 I. xizangensis
+ Trees, rarely shrubs, (2-)5-18 m tall; leaf blade 5-15.5 × 1.5-5.5 cm, lateral veins 8-15 pairs, petiole 0.8-5 cm   (46)
       
46 (45) Terminal buds 1.5-2.5 cm; leaf blade elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or oblanceolate   (47)
+ Terminal buds shorter than 1 cm; leaf blade oblanceolate, linear-oblanceolate, oblong-elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, rarely obovate, linear-lanceolate, linear, or elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate   (48)
       
47 (46) Terminal buds ellipsoidal-conical, ca. 1.5 cm, bud scales glabrous, margin serrate; leaf blade narrowly elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 5-14 × 2-4.5 cm; male inflorescences 1-3-flowered cymes, fasciculate; pyrenes pilose.   98 I. hookeri
+ Terminal buds ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm, bud scales abaxially densely puberulent, margin entire; leaf blade elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or oblanceolate, 10-15.5 × 3-5.5 cm; male inflorescences 3-7-flowered cymes, fasciculate; pyrenes glabrous or sparsely pubescent.   99 I. sikkimensis
       
48 (46) Infructescence a 1-fruited cyme, pseudoracemose, fruiting pedicel equaling diam. of fruit, puberulent.   100 I. melanotricha
+ Infructescence a 1-fruited cyme, fasciculate, fruiting pedicel shorter to longer than diam. of fruit, glabrous   (49)
       
49 (48) Male flowers: petals oblong, not ciliate; leaf blade usually oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 6-12.5 × 2-4.2 cm, margin serrulate.   101 I. franchetiana
+ Male flowers: petals obovate-oblong, ciliate; leaf blade usually oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, 5-13 × 1.5-2.5 cm, margin proximally entire, distally sparsely serrulate.   102 I. fargesii
       
50 (40) Young branchlets and petioles pubescent or puberulent, rarely young branchlets glabrescent or glabrous   (51)
+ Young branchlets glabrous, rarely puberulent or glabrescent, petiole glabrous, rarely puberulent or pubescent   (62)
       
51 (50) Ovary and fruit pubescent or puberulent   (52)
+ Ovary and fruit glabrous, rarely puberulent   (54)
       
52 (51) Small trees; leaf blade elliptic or oblong-elliptic, apex abruptly caudate-acuminate, acumen 1-1.5 cm.   103 I. gracilis
+ Shrubs; leaf blade oblong, oblong-elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, apex acuminate or shortly acuminate   (53)
       
53 (52) Infructescences: 1-fruited cymes, pseudoracemose, axillary on current year’s branchlets, axis 2-5 mm; fruiting pedicels ca. 2 mm; bracteoles ovate; leaf blade papery, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 5-9 cm.   104 I. dasyclada
+ Infructescences: 1-fruited cymes, fasciculate, axillary on second year’s branchlets; fruiting pedicels 2-3 mm; bracteoles lanceolate; leaf blade leathery, ovate-elliptic, 4-7 cm.   105 I. wangiana
       
54 (51) Leaf blade papery, rarely thinly leathery   (55)
+ Leaf blade leathery, rarely thinly leathery or subleathery   (57)
       
55 (54) Leaf blade papery or thinly leathery, apex abruptly acuminate, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs, petiole 10-15 mm.   108 I. chartaceifolia
+ Leaf blade papery, apex shortly to long acuminate, lateral veins 9 or 10 pairs, petiole 6-10 mm   (56)
       
56 (55) Leaf blade oblong or elliptic, 8-10 × 3-4 cm, abaxially minutely glandular punctate, margin minutely crenulate-serrate.   106 I. dicarpa
+ Leaf blade broadly lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, or oblong, 7-9 × 2-3.2 cm, abaxially not glandular punctate, margin sparsely undulate-serrulate.   107 I. nubicola
       
57 (54) Ovary or fruit tuberculate   (58)
+ Ovary and fruit not tuberculate   (60)
       
58 (57) Fruiting pedicel ca. 2.5 mm, fruit globose or subglobose, persistent stigma discoid; leaf blade ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, 4-8 cm, margin irregularly sparsely and shallowly serrate.   109 I. buergeri
+ Fruiting pedicel 3-6 mm, fruit ellipsoidal or subglobose-ellipsoidal, persistent stigma thickly discoid; leaf blade oblong, oblong-elliptic, ovate-elliptic, or lanceolate, margin sparsely crenulate, coarsely sharply serrate, sparsely serrulate, or subentire   (59)
       
59 (58) Male inflorescences 1(-3)-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, midvein impressed adaxially, lateral veins 5-8 pairs, margin sparsely crenulate or coarsely sharply serrate.   110 I. subrugosa
+ Male inflorescences 1-3-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade oblong, elliptic-oblong, or ovate-elliptic, midvein raised or subflat adaxially, lateral veins 7-9 pairs, margin sparsely serrulate or subentire.   111 I. austrosinensis
       
60 (57) Leaf blade usually lanceolate, 9-15 mm wide, margin bluntly crenulate-serrate; pyrenes abaxially palmately striate, endocarp woody.   112 I. chuniana
+ Leaf blade oblong or oblong-elliptic, 1.3-3.2 cm wide, margin entire or inconspicuously serrulate or crenulate-serrate; pyrenes stony or woody   (61)
       
61 (60) Fruit globose, ca. 6 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong, 4-4.5 mm, 2-2.5 mm in diam., abaxially longitudinally 1-sulcate, palmately striate and sulcate, laterally rugose and pitted, endocarp stony.   113 I. pingnanensis
+ Fruit subglobose, ca. 4 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam., pyrenes ellipsoidal, ca. 3 mm, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., abaxially and laterally striate and sulcate, endocarp woody.   114 I. fengqingensis
       
62 (50) Shrubs or trees   (63)
+ Trees, rarely shrubs   (73)
       
63 (62) Shrubs, 1-3(-4) m tall   (64)
+ Shrubs or trees, (2-)3-5(-15) m tall   (68)
       
64 (63) Leaf blade obovate-oblong or obovate-lanceolate, rarely elliptic, 4.5-7.5 cm; pyrenes ovoid, ca. 2 mm, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., abaxially smooth, nearly not or inconspicuously striate and sulcate.   115 I. kunmingensis
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblong-elliptic; pyrenes subglobose or ellipsoidal, abaxially striate and sulcate   (65)
       
65 (64) Leaf blade lanceolate, abaxially punctate.   116 I. peiradena
+ Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, oblong-elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, abaxially not punctate   (66)
       
66 (65) Infructescences: cymes pseudoracemose; leaf blade 7-12 × 2.2-4 cm, lateral veins 8-10 pairs, adaxially evident, slightly raised or ± flat, petiole 8-13 mm.   117 I. micropyrena
+ Female inflorescences: cymes fasciculate; leaf blade 3.5-8.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, lateral veins 5-9 pairs, petiole 4-8 mm   (67)
       
67 (66) Ovary oblong, stigma discoid; leaf blade thickly leathery, margin slightly or deeply undulate, sparsely black serrulate, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, abaxially evident.   118 I. pingheensis
+ Ovary ovoid, stigma trapezoid-conical; leaf blade thinly leathery, margin not undulate, sparsely and shallowly serrate, lateral veins 8 or 9 pairs, raised on both surfaces, or adaxially flat.   119 I. macrostigma
       
68 (63) Apex of leaf blade usually abruptly acuminate   (69)
+ Apex of leaf blade acute or acuminate, not abruptly acuminate   (71)
       
69 (68) Leaf blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 4-6 × 1.5-2.5 cm, base attenuate and decurrent, lateral veins slightly raised on both surfaces, reticulate veins evident.   120 I. dianguiensis
+ Leaf blade oblong-ovate, oblanceolate, oblong, elliptic, or obovate-oblong, base rounded or obtuse, lateral veins slightly impressed or obscure adaxially, reticulate veins indistinct or slightly evident   (70)
       
70 (69) Male inflorescences 1(-3)-flowered cymes, fasciculate; rudimentary ovary globose, ca. 1 mm in diam., apex densely puberulent; leaf blade oblong-ovate, abaxially not punctate.   121 I. brachyphylla
+ Male inflorescences 3-flowered cymes, fasciculate; rudimentary ovary subglobose, ca. 0.5 mm in diam., glabrous; leaf blade oblanceolate, elliptic, oblong, or obovate-oblong, abaxially sparsely glandular punctate.   122 I. confertiflora
       
71 (68) Male inflorescence: cyme pseudopaniculate, rachis stout, inflated, purple-black; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 6-9.5 × 2.5-3 cm, abaxially minutely glandular punctate.   123 I. punctatilimba
+ Male inflorescence: cyme fasciculate, not pseudopaniculate; leaf blade oblong-oblanceolate, ovate-oblong, or oblong, 7-15 × 2-7 cm, abaxially glandular punctate or not   (72)
       
72 (71) Male inflorescences 1-3-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade ovate-oblong or oblong, 11-14 × 5-7 cm, abaxially minutely punctate, petiole 10-15 mm.   124 I. robustinervosa
+ Male inflorescences 3-9-flowered cymes, fasciculate; leaf blade oblong-oblanceolate, 7-15 × 2-4 cm, abaxially not punctate, petiole 2-4 mm.   125 I. cinerea
       
73 (62) Female inflorescence and infructescence: cymes pseudoracemose, sometimes fasciculate   (74)
+ Female inflorescence and infructescence 1-flowered or 1-fruited cymes, fasciculate, not pseudoracemose   (80)
       
74 (73) Branchlets conspicuously lenticellate   (75)
+ Branchlets not lenticellate   (76)
       
75 (74) Fruit subglobose, ca. 9 mm, ca. 8 mm in diam.; pyrenes trigonous-ellipsoid, 6-7 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam., abaxially longitudinally striate and sulcate; leaf blade papery, margin sparsely and shallowly crenulate.   126 I. venosa
+ Fruit depressed globose, 4-5 mm in diam., tuberculate; pyrenes ovoid-trigonous, ca. 2.5 mm, ca. 2 mm in diam., abaxially irregularly reticulate-striate, rugose; leaf blade thickly leathery, margin densely and sharply serrate.   127 I. dunniana
       
76 (74) Fruit tuberculate (under lens), persistent stigma thickly discoid, endocarp stony; apex of leaf blade obtuse, acute, shortly acuminate, or nearly caudate-acuminate.   128 I. intermedia
+ Fruit not tuberculate, persistent stigma navel-shaped, mammilliform, capitate, thinly discoid, or thickly discoid, endocarp leathery or stony; apex of leaf blade acuminate to caudate-acuminate, rarely abruptly acute   (77)
       
77 (76) Fruiting pedicel densely puberulent, ca. 1 mm, persistent stigma mammilliform or thickly discoid, endocarp leathery; petiole (8-)10-15 mm.   129 I. medogensis
+ Fruiting pedicel puberulent or sparsely puberulent, 2-5.5 mm, persistent stigma navel-shaped, thinly discoid, or capitate, endocarp stony; petiole 4-13 mm   (78)
       
78 (77) Male flower: corolla ca. 10 mm in diam.; pyrenes palmately striate and sulcate throughout; leaf blade papery.   130 I. gintungensis
+ Male flower: corolla 5-6 mm in diam.; pyrenes abaxially palmately striate and sulcate, laterally longitudinally striate and sulcate; leaf blade leathery or thickly papery   (79)
       
79 (78) Persistent stigma capitate; pyrenes ovoid-oblong or oblong, 3-4 mm; male flower: calyx puberulent, petals oblong, ca. 3 mm, ciliate; leaf blade margin usually crenulate-serrate, petiole 5-13 mm.   131 I. formosana
+ Persistent stigma navel-shaped; pyrenes oblong, ca. 4 mm; male flower: calyx glabrous and ciliate, petals obovate-oblong, ca. 2 mm, not ciliate; leaf blade margin subentire or minutely crenulate, petiole 4-7 mm.   132 I. tetramera
       
80 (73) Pyrenes abaxially longitudinally striate and sulcate; fruiting pedicel 1-2 mm; third year’s and older branchlets with raised elliptic lenticels.   133 I. cupreonitens
+ Pyrenes abaxially usually striate and sulcate, rarely only striate; fruiting pedicel (1-)2-3(-6) mm; third year’s and older branchlets not lenticellate, rarely minutely or sparsely lenticellate   (81)
       
81 (80) Leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate or acute, margin undulate crenate-serrate; fruit 3-5 mm in diam., pyrenes 2-2.5(-5) mm, ca. 1.5(-2) mm in diam., ellipsoidal-trigonous.   134 I. corallina
+ Leaf blade usually not above-mentioned shapes, but sometimes oblong and rarely ovate, margin rarely undulate; fruit (3-)5-7(-8) mm in diam., pyrenes 3-4.5(-7) mm, (1.5-)2-3(-5) mm in diam., ellipsoidal or subglobose, rarely obovoid, obovoid-oblong, ovoid, or oblong   (82)
       
82 (81) Fruiting pedicel equaling or longer than diam. of fruit   (83)
+ Fruiting pedicel much shorter than diam. of fruit, ca. less than 1/2 in diam   (85)
       
83 (82) Fruit globose, ca. 6 mm in diam., fruiting pedicel 5-6 mm.   137 I. cyrtura
+ Fruit ellipsoidal or globose, 3-5 mm in diam., fruiting pedicel 3-3.5 mm   (84)
       
84 (83) Fruit globose, 3-5 mm in diam., fruiting pedicel ca. 3.5 mm, pyrenes obovoid; leaf blade papery, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 5-8 × 1.5-2.5 cm, acumen 1.8-2 cm.   135 I. arisanensis
+ Fruit ellipsoidal, 3.5-4 mm in diam., fruiting pedicel ca. 3 mm, pyrenes ellipsoidal; leaf blade thinly leathery, usually oblong-elliptic, 6.5-11.5 × 3.5-4 cm, acumen 1-1.5 cm.   136 I. marlipoensis
       
85 (82) Peduncles of male cymes very short to nearly absent; pyrenes laterally striate and sulcate or inconspicuously striate, not rugose or pitted   (86)
+ Peduncles of male cymes 1-2 mm; pyrenes laterally rugose and/or pitted   (87)
       
86 (85) Fruit subglobose, persistent stigma discoid or navel-shaped, pyrenes obovoid-oblong; leaf blade papery to thinly leathery, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-elliptic, 6-12 cm, reticulate veins slightly raised on both surfaces.   138 I. wattii
+ Fruit globose, persistent stigma thickly discoid, pyrenes ellipsoidal; leaf blade leathery, oblong-elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 4-8 cm, reticulate veins evident only abaxially.   139 I. guangnanensis
       
87 (85) Stamens longer than petals; petals ovate-oblong, apically ciliate; fruit tuberculate (under lens).   140 I. ficoidea
+ Stamens equaling or shorter than petals; petals oblong, not ciliate; fruit not tuberculate   (88)
       
88 (87) Fruit globose, 7-8 mm in diam., pyrenes oblong or subglobose, 5.5-7 mm, 4-5 mm in diam.; leaf blade subleathery, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 6-12 × 2-4 cm, margin serrate.   141 I. glomerata
+ Fruit depressed globose, ca. 4 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam., pyrenes subglobose, ca. 3 mm, ca. 2.5 mm in diam.; leaf blade leathery, elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 6-9 × 2-3 cm, margin strongly serrate, teeth black and apiculate.   142 I. subodorata

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