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Pakistan | Family List

Bignoniaceae

YASIN J. NASIR


National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.

Trees or shrubs, often climbers, rarely herbs. Leaves usually opposite, simple or compound, often modified into tendrillar organs, exstipulate. Flowers showy, bisexual, ± irregular, hypogynous. Calyx campanulate, truncate or 5-lobed. Corolla broad campanulate or tubular, 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed. Stamens 4—5. epipetalous, didynamous; staminodes present or not; anthers bilocular, dehiscing longitudinally. Disk present or absent. Ovary 2(-1)-locular with many ovlues on axile placentas. Fruit a capsule or sometimes a berry (Kigelia). Seeds winged (not in Kigelia).

A family of c. 120 genera and c. 800 species; mostly tropical South America, but also in the tropics and subtropics of the old world. Represented in Pakistan by 3 native genera and 13 frequently cultivated species. Some additional cultivated taxa not included in the key, are mentioned below.

Additional Taxa

Many other species of Bignoniceae are cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some of these are now finding their way into local Horticultural Catalogues but as yet appear to be rarely grown in Pakistan. These are:

1. Pandorea jasminoides (Lindl.) K.Schum in Engl. & Prantl,Pflanzen.V.4,38. 230.1894; L.H.Bailey, Stand. Cyclop. Hort.5: 2452.1917.

Tecoma jasminoides Lindl. Bot. Reg. t.2002, 1839-40; G.Nicolson, Dict. Gard.4:13.1889; Parker, For. Fl. Punj. 376.1918; N.L.Bor. & M.B. Raizada, Ind. Climb. & Shrubs, 42.1954.

A twining shrub with white to pinkish flowers borne in short panicles.

Distribution: A native of Australia.

The “Bower Plant” is recorded in the Bagh-i-Jinnah, Price List. Cat. p. 38. 1968,Lahore. Fl.Per.: Spring.

2. Pandorea pandorana (Andrews) Van Steenis in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3,10:198.1828.

Bignonia pandorana Andrews, Bot. Rep. 2:t.86.1800; Tecoma australis R.Brown, Prodr. 471.1810; G. Nicolson, l.c; Parker, l.c.; N.L.Bor & M.B. Raizada, l.c. 43; Pandorea australis Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 9:136.1840.

Similar to the above species but with smaller flowers which are creamy white with reddish throat. The panicles are many-flowered and usually longer.

Distribution: A native of Australia.

‘Wonga Wonga’ vine is recorded in the Bagh-i-Jinnah, Lahore (Price List. Cat. 38).

3. Anemopaegma chamberlaynii (Sims) Bur. & K.Schum in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2: 128. 1827.

Bignonia chamberlayni Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 2148.1820; Anemopaegma racemosum Mart. ex DC. Prodr. 9:189.1849.

A climber with yellow flowers. Recorded in the Cat. Price List, 6.1958 of Gandhi Gardens, Karachi.

4. Distictis buccinatoria (DC) A. Gentry in Brittonia 25:237.1973. Bignonia buccinatoria Mariet ex DC, Prodr. 9:195.1845.

‘Red Bignonia’ is a native climber of Mexico, recorded in the CDA List, 1968-69, Islamabad.

5. Spathodea campanulata Beauv., Fl. Owar. 1:17, t. 27-28.1805; Corner, Wayside Trees of Malaya, 1:169.1953; Blatter, Millard & Stearn, Beautiful Ind. Trees. ed. 2, 136.pl. 29.1954.

Recorded in the Price List. Cat. 73.1958, Gandhi Gardens, Karachi. The African tulip tree’ is a native of tropical W.Africa. It has large pinnate leaves & large orange-red flowers which are foul smelling.

6. Crescentia cujete Linn., Sp. Pl. 426.1753; L.H.Bailey, Stand. Cyclop. Hort. 2: 890.1919.

Recorded in the Price List Cat. 65.1958, Gandhi Gardens, Karachi. The ‘Calabash tree’ is a native of tropical S.America. The tree has yellow flowers which are nocturnal. The rind of the indehiscent fruit is hard and the hollowed fruit is used as a water container.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480. We are also thankful to Dr. A. Gentry, Botanical Garden, Missouri, for his help and to Mr. I.C.Hedge, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, for going through the manuscript.


1 Plants native   (2)
+ Plants known in cultivation only   (4)
       
2 (1) Small to medium sized trees, with opposite leaves   (3)
+ Perennial or annual herbs, sometimes suffrutiscent, with alternate leaves   Incarvillea
       
3 (2) Small trees, up to 5(-7)m tall with alternate and entire leaves. Flowers orange to orange-red in colour   Tecomella
+ Medium sized trees; up to 15 m tall with opposite and unipinnate leaves. Flowers purplish-yellow or dull purple to lilac   Stereospermum
       
4 (1) Trees   (5)
+ Shrubs or climbers, rarely herbs   (10)
       
5 (4) Capsule suborbicular-compressed. Flowers purple-mauve   Jacaranda
+ Capsule elongated, cylindrical, subterete or compress ed. Flowers of various colours but not purple-mauve   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaves simple. Seeds with a tuft of hairs at each end   Catalpa
+ Leaves uni- to 3-pinnate. Seeds winged, or not   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaves subopposite or opposite. Capsule indehiscent, gourd-like, cylindrical. Seeds not winged   Kigelia
+ Leaves opposite. Capsule subterete to compressed. Seeds winged   (8)
       
8 (7) Evergreen trees. Flowers white, in pendulous panicles. Corolla tubular   Millingtonia
+ Deciduous trees. Flowers not white, in erect panicles or racemes. Corolla broad, campanulate-ventricose   (9)
       
9 (8) Leaves 2-3-pinnate. Stamens 5. Capsule 30-100 cm long, dehiscing by 2 valves septicidally. Seeds ± angled   Oroxylum
+ Leaves 1-pinnate. Stamens 2. Capsule up to 30 cm long, dehiscing by 2 valves loculicidally. Seeds discoid   Fernandoa
       
10 (4) Shrubs climbing by the help of adventitious roots or tendrillar organs   (12)
+ Shrubs erect to scandent, without organs for climbing   (11)
       
11 (10) Corolla infundibuliform, ± curved, 4-lobed   Tecomaria
+ Corolla broad campanulate-ventricose, 5-lobed   Tecoma
       
12 (10) Leaf 1-pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets. Climbers with clinging adventitious roots   Campsis
+ Leaf 2-3-foliolate. Climbers with tendrillar organs   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaf tendril simple. Capsule ± prickly   Clytostoma
+ Leaf tendril 3-clawed or hooked. Capsule smooth   (14)
       
14 (13) Corolla tubular. Stamens exserted   (15)
+ Corolla broad campanulate. Stamens included   Macfadyena
       
15 (14) Calyx spathaceous, splitting on one side. Flowers dull-red   Dolichandra
+ Calyx 5-parted or truncate, regular. Flowers orange-red   Pyrostegia

  • List of lower taxa


     

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