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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 207 | Asteraceae

20. Artemisia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 845. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5. 357. 1754; DC., Prodr. 6: 93. 1837; Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 435. 1873; Boiss., Fl. Or. 3: 360. 1875; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 321. 1881; Poljakov in Schischk. & Bobrov, Fl. USSR 26: 404. 2000 (Engl. transl.) excl. subgen. Seriphidium; Leonova in Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. (Leningrad) 7: 280-294. 1971; Tutin, K.M.Perss. & Gutermann in Tutin et al., Fl. Europ. 4: 178. 1976 excl. sect. Artemisia pro parte; Podlech in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. Comp. IV. 158: 159. 1986, excl. subgen. Seriphidium; K. Bremer & Humphries in Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Bot.) 23 (2): 120. 1993; K.Bremer, Asteraceae: 458. 1994.

Oligosporus Cass. in Bull. Soc. Philom. 33: 1817.

Annual, biennial or perennial, usually bitter-aromatic or non-aromatic, glabrous, hairy or punctate-glandulose herbs or small to large shrubs with tap root or horizontal rootstock. Leaves alternate, basal large and petiolate, upper often subsessile to sessile, undivided or toothed-shallowly to deeply incised or lobed, palmati- or pinnatipartite or 2-4-pinnatisect. Synflorescence a panicle, sometimes racemoid or spicate, occasionally globoid or fascicled. Capitula generally numerous, small, rarely mediocre, nodding or erect, oblong-cylindrical or ovate to almost globose, heterogamous. Involucre ovoid to campanulate or hemispherical; phyllaries in 2-4 (-6)-series, imbricate, hairy or glabrous, inner ones mostly scarious-margined or scarious. Receptacle plane, convex, conical or hemispherical, glabrous or pilose. Flowers brownish, reddish or yellowish, all tubular. Ray-florets: pistillate and fertile; corolla narrowly tubular, generally tapering upwards, 2-3 (-4)-toothed, ± oblique, eligulate; style exserted, 2-cleft, branches recurved, linear-filiform and terete-oblong, ± flattened. Disc-florets bisexual, fertile or sterile; corolla tubular to ± campanulate or funnel-shaped, 5-toothed; anthers oblong, longer than the filaments, obtuse or ± cordate at the base, apical appendages lanceolate or subulate; style exserted or included, either 2-cleft with flat, truncate and apically erose or fimbriate, ± recurved branches or columnar with an erose or fimbriate disc or cup at the apex. Cypselas of both marginal and discs (when fertile) terete, oblong-ellipsoid or obovoid to nearly fusiform-prismatic, faintly many-striate or smooth, glabrous, apically rounded or truncate. Pappus absent or sometimes cypselas with a minute annulus or scarious corolliform ring.

A genus of c. 388 species (K. Bremer & Humphries, 1993), distributed mainly in north temperate regions of both the new and old world, extreme north and south Africa and south America; conspicuous by its absence in Australia. Represented in Pakistan by 25 species in arid and semi-arid areas of Balochistan, NWFP, northern Punjab, and Kashmir forming an important component of Artemisia steppes.


1 Leaves simple, undivided, entire or serrate.   (2)
+ Leaves shallowly to deeply, 1-3 times divided.   (3)
       
2 (1) Leaves serrate with incurved gland tipped teeth, glabrous above, glandular hairy beneath.   13 Artemisia amygdalina
+ Leaves without serrations, glabrous on both sides.   2 Artemisia dracunculus
       
3 (1) Disc-florets functionally male, with rudimentary ovaries; styles shorter than the corolla.   (4)
+ Disc-florets fertile, with well-developed ovaries, styles as long as or longer than the corolla.   (11)
       
4 (3) Basal and lower stem leaves oblong-obovate to flabellate, mostly cuneate to incised dentate at the apices.   1 Artemisia japonica
+ Basal and lower stem leaves ovate-orbicular, or oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate, deeply dissected pinnately or palmately or upper leaves simple and occasionally lower 3-5-cleft.   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaves, when undissected, or leaf segments usually more than (1-) 1.5 mm wide.   (6)
+ Leaf segments usually less than 1 mm wide.   (9)
       
6 (5) Leaves mostly simple, entire, occasionally lower 3-5-cleft. Florets more than 20 per capitulum.   2 Artemisia dracunculus
+ Leaves twice or thrice pinnatipartite or pinnatisect. Florets less than 20 per capitulum.   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaves with white dots on the upper surface, densely grayish hairy to glabrescent below, ultimate leaf segments 2 mm or more wide. Panicle 10 cm or more wide.   14 Artemisia dubia
+ Leaves not white-dotted on the upper surface, glabrous on both sides, ultimate leaf segments less than 2 mm wide.   (8)
       
8 (7) Plants 50 – 80 (-90) cm tall. Capitula 2.5 – 3 mm long.   3 Artemisia desertorum
+ Plants 20 – 40 (-50) cm tall. Capitula 3 – 4 mm long, phyllaries glaucous.   4 Artemisia salsoloides
       
9 (5) Annual or biennial herbs with procumbent to ascending , up to 20 (-30) cm tall stems. Panicle very narrowly pyramidate, c. 1.5 – 2 cm wide, with up to 4 cm long suberect branches.   5 Artemisia stricta
+ Biennial or perennial, with usually more than 30 cm tall stems. Panicle broadly pyramidate, with more than 5 cm long branches.   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaf segments linear-lanceolate, 3 – 4 (-5) mm long, 0.5 – 1 mm wide.   6 Artemisia scoparia
+ Leaf segments filiform, 8 – 12 mm long, 0.3 – 0.5 mm wide.   7 Artemisia capillaris
       
11 (3) Receptacle densely to obscurely hairy, sometimes glabrescent to glabrous.   (12)
+ Receptacle glabrous.   (17)
       
12 (11) Plants more than 30 cm tall. Capitula numerous, in narrow to broadly pyramidate panicle.   (13)
+ Plants less than 30 cm tall. Capitula up to 30, in simple racemes.   (16)
       
13 (12) Leaves triangular-ovate. Capitula 6 – 7 (-8) mm across.   8 Artemisia sieversiana
+ Leaves oblong-obovate or broadly ovate or oblong-ovate or orbicular to oblate or flabellate. Capitula 3-5 mm across.   (14)
       
14 (13) Lower leaves with up to 1.5 cm long petioles; lamina oblong-obovate or orbicular to oblate or flabellate.   (15)
+ Lower leaves with more than 1.5 (up to 10) cm long petioles; lamina broadly ovate or oblong-ovate, with 2 – 4 mm broad ultimate segments.   10 Artemisia absinthium
       
15 (14) Leaf blades orbicular to oblate or flabellate. Panicle oblong, 3-4 cm wide.   22 Artemisia rutifolia
+ Leaf blades oblong-obovate. Panicle ± oblong-pyramidate, 8 – 12 cm wide.   9 Artemisia persica
       
16 (12) Leaf petioles 4 – 5 mm long. Leaf blades flabellate, 4 – 6 mm long, 6 – 8 mm wide. Peduncles long.   11 Artemisia minor
+ Leaf petioles 10 – 15 mm long. Leaf blades 10 – 15 mm long and broad. Peduncles very short.   12 Artemisia macrocephala
       
17 (11) Ultimate leaf segments 2 mm or more wide.   (18)
+ Ultimate leaf segments less than 1.5 mm wide.   (22)
       
18 (17) Panicle broadly pyramidate, usually 10 cm or more wide.   (19)
+ Panicle narrowly pyramidate, usually up to 10 cm or less wide.   (23)
       
19 (18) Leaves with white dots on the upper surface.   14 Artemisia dubia
+ Leaves not white-dotted on the upper surface.   (20)
       
20 (19) Capitula 3 – 4 x c. 2 mm, lax in almost leafless panicle. Phyllaries glabrous, externally shiny.   15 Artemisia elegantissima
+ Capitula 3 – 4 x c. 2 mm, dense and compact in leafy panicle. Phyllaries grayish-arachnoid hairy, externally not shiny.   16 Artemisia vulgaris
       
21 Panicle 5 – 10 cm broad, with obliquely patent to ascending, more than 4 cm long branches. Phyllaries glabrous.   17 Artemisia incisa
+ Panicle 2 – 3 cm broad, with 2.5 – 4 cm long, erect to ± patent branches. Phyllaries sparsely to densely arachnoid hairy outside.   (22)
       
22 (21) Capitula 4 – 4.5 x 4 – 6 mm. Corolla of disc-florets apically sparsely hairy. Cypselas 1.75 – 2 mm long.   18 Artemisia moorcroftiana
+ Capitula 3 – 4 x 2 – 3 mm. Corolla of disc-florets completely glabrous. Cypselas c. 1.25 mm long.   19 Artemisia roxburghiana
       
23 (18) Capitula sessile, approximate, erect, congested in oblong, 1.5 – 5 cm wide, strict, contracted panicle with closely ascending to erect-appressed spicate branches.   20 Artemisia biennis
+ Capitula shortly peduncled, lax, nodding in narrow to broadly pyramidate, more than 5 cm wide, lax panicle with spreading or ascending branches.   (24)
       
24 (23) Annaul, simple, sparsely puberulous stemmed herb. Leaves glabrous on both sides.   21 Artemisia annua
+ Perennial, with several stems from the base. Leaves densely hairy on both sides or sparsely hairy to glabrous above and laxly to densely hairy beneath.   (25)
       
25 (24) Leaves oblong-obovate or orbicular to oblate or flabellate, densely sericeous or grayish hairy on both sides. Disc-floret corollas long hairy at apices.   (26)
+ Leaves oblong-elliptic or oblong-ovate to broadly triangular-ovate, sparsely hairy or glabrous and green above with pitted glands, laxly to densely arachnoid hairy beneath. Disc-floret corollas not hairy at the apices.   (27)
       
26 (25) Leaves oblong-obovate, grayish hairy, tripinnatisect with 1.5 – 2.5 mm long ultimate segments. Capitula 3 – 3.5 mm long and broad.   9 Artemisia persica
+ Leaves orbicular to oblate or flabellate, palmately bipinnatisect into 2 – 12 mm long ultimate segments. Capitula 3.5 – 5 mm long and broad.   22 Artemisia rutifolia
       
27 (25) Leaves exauriculate at the base. Phyllaries almost glabrous.   23 Artemisia laciniata
+ Leaves auriculate at the base. Phyllaries strigose or sparsely hairy.   (28)
       
28 (27) Lower leaves bipinnatisect. Capitula 2.5 – 3 mm across; outrmost phyllaries triangular-ovate, narrowly scarious margined, acute.   25 Artemisia gmelinii
+ Leaves narrowly tripinnatisect. Capitula 3 – 5 mm across; outermost phyllaries linear-oblong, not scarious-margined.   24 Artemisia santolinifolia

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