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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae

Panicum Linn., Sp. Pl. 1:55. 1753. Blatter & McCann, Bombay Grasses 155. 1935; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:222. 1940; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 1:23. 1958; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 319. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9: 486; Bor in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 70:468. 1970; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 656. 1976; Clayton in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5:261. 1980.

Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades rolled or flat, linear to ovate; ligule a ciliate rim or a line of hairs, rarely a distinct membrane or absent. Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches. Spikelets usually ovate to elliptic; glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the lower shorter than, and the upper as long as the spikelet; lower floret male or sterile, its lemma usually resembling the upper glume, with or without a palea; upper lemma ± as long as the spikelet, crustaceous, clasping only the margins of the palea. Caryopsis ± ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.

A genus of about 600 species in tropical and warm temperate regions; 15 species are recorded from Pakistan of which 7 are probably native, 3 are established aliens and 5 are found only in cultivation.

1 Upper lemma faintly or strongly rugulose   (2)
+ Upper lemma smooth and shining   (3)
2 (1) Nodes bearded; ligule 4-6 mm long; spikelets usually pubescent (in Pakistan)   Panicum maximum
+ Nodes glabrous; ligule up to 2 mm long; spikelets glabrous; in cultivation only   Panicum plenum
3 (1) Spikelets 4-5.5 mm long   (4)
+ Spikelets up to 3.5 mm long   (5)
4 (3) Leaf-sheaths hairy; spikelets persistent; lower glume acuminate, half to three-quarters the length of the spikelet; annual   Panicum miliaceum
+ Leaf-sheaths glabrous; spikelets deciduous, lower glume almost as long as the spikelet; glaucous woody perennial   Panicum turgidum
5 (3) Lower glume cuspidate-acuminate, spikelets widely gaping at maturity   Panicum trypheron
+ Lower glume not cuspidate acuminate and spikelets not gaping at maturity   (6)
6 (5) Spikelets narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute   (7)
+ Spikelets oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic, acute or obtuse   (8)
7 (6) Culms soft, spongy; spikelets narrowly lanceolate; leaf-blades broad, flat   Panicum paludosum
+ Culms firm, not spongy; spikelets lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; leaf-blades narrow, often involute   Panicum repens
8 (6) Lower glume a quarter to half the length of the spikelet; margins of glumes herbaceous   (9)
+ Lower glume half to three-quarters the length of the spikelet, if shorter then plant perennial with margins of glumes broadly membranous   (13)
9 (8) Annuals   (10)
+ Perennials   (12)
10 (9) Panicle branches and branchlets capillary, the spikelets on long fine pedicels; entire inflorescence deciduous at maturity   Panicum capillare
+ Panicle branches and branchlets stouter; inflorescence remaining attached to the plant, only the spikelets falling   (11)
11 (10) Spikelets deciduous, 2-3 mm long; panicle effuse; wild grass   Panicum psilopodium
+ Spikelets plump, subpersistent, 2-3.5 mm long; panicle contracted; cultivated grass   Panicum sumatrense
12 (9) Culms erect, caespitose; leaves mostly confined to a basal tuft, up to 5 mm wide; cultivated grass   Panicum stapfianum
+ Culms decumbent; leaves not confined to a basal tuft, up to 15 mm wide; cultivated grass   Panicum coloratum
13 (8) Perennial; margins of glumes broadly membranous; fruit pallid   Panicum antidotale
+ Annual; margins of glumes herbaceous   (14)
14 (13) Fruit brown   Panicum atrosanguineum
+ Fruit pallid   Panicum walense

  • List of lower taxa


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