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Lamiaceae Lindley

唇形科 chun xing ke

Authors: Xi-wen Li & Ian C. Hedge

Lamiophlomis rotata
Image File

Herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, annual or perennial, usually aromatic. Stems and branches usually 4-angled. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple to pinnately dissected or compound, without stipules. Inflorescences generally compound, sometimes flowers solitary and axillary; verticillasters 2- to many flowered, subtended by leaves or bracts. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely subactinomorphic, bracteolate or not. Calyx persistent, 5-toothed, 2-lipped; upper lip 3-toothed or entire (deciduous in Scutellaria); lower lip 2- or 4-toothed; tube sometimes hairy annulate inside. Corolla limb usually 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed and lower 3-lobed, rarely upper lip entire and lower 4-lobed, also rarely limb (4- or) 5-lobed; tube hairy annulate inside. Stamens epipetalous, 4 or 2, free, rarely filaments connate, sometimes one staminodial; anther 1- or 2-celled, usually dehiscing longitudinally; disc persistent. Ovary superior, 2-celled and each cell 2-ovuled and style subterminal, or ovary 4-parted and each lobe 1-ovuled and style gynobasic (from bases of ovary lobes) with 2-cleft apex. Fruit usually 4 dry nutlets. Seeds with or without endosperm.

Approximately 3500 species in 220 genera, distributed worldwide, but mostly in the Mediterranean region and SW Asia. China has 807 species in 96 genera.

Cantino (Taxon 40: 441. 1991) suggests that Cardioteucris cordifolia C. Y. Wu, originally placed in the Lamiaceae, is identical with Caryopteris siccanea W. Smith (Verbenaceae, q.v.). Although the original author agrees with the identity of Cardioteucris cordifolia and Cardiopteris siccaneae, he believes that the generic placement of Cardioteucris is in the Lamiaceae because of its 2-lipped calyx and deeply 4-divided ovary. The last feature is aberrant in Caryopteris and all other Verbenaceae.

Wu Cheng-yih & Li Hsi-wen, eds. 1977. Labiatae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(2): 1-649, 66: 1-647.


Key 7

1 Calyx broadly campanulate, equally 5-toothed in flower, many veined, much dilated, 2-lipped (upper lip wider) in fruit; corolla tube erect, long and narrow; stamens included; filaments glabrous   81 Siphocranion
+ Calyx subequally 5-toothed (or posterior tooth slightly larger), not 2-lipped in fruit; corolla tube short; stamens mostly exserted, filaments sometimes hairy.   (2)
       
2 (1) Corolla with 4 or 5 equal or subequal lobes, anterior lobe ± projected; anther cells confluent at apex, flattened after anthesis; filaments mostly hairy.   (3)
+ Corolla 2-lipped or nearly so, upper lip slightly convex; anther cells mostly confluent at apex; filaments glabrous, rarely hairy.   (5)
       
3 (2) Calyx 5-parted, teeth linear, plumose in fruit; densely lanate-tomentose, gynodieocious shrubs; leaves opposite or in whorls of 3; flowers minute   80 Colebrookea
+ Calyx with 5 equal teeth.   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaves opposite, ovate or narrowly ovate, rarely linear or falcate, petiolate or subsessile, ± hairy or tomentose; corolla nearly 2-lipped, upper lip 3-lobed, lower entire; calyx with crystals; stem not hollow   78 Pogostemon
+ Leaves in whorls of 3-10, linear to lanceolate, sessile, subglabrous; corolla 4-lobed; calyx without crystals; stem hollow   79 Dysophylla
       
5 (2) Calyx ± 2-lipped, campanulate, upper lip 3-toothed, lower 2-toothed; racemes of 2-flowered verticillasters; filaments much exserted, rarely included, bearded at base   77 Keiskea
+ Calyx equally or subqually 5-toothed; inflorescences terminal.   (6)
       
6 (5) Corolla tube short, limb 4-lobed, posterior (or upper) lobe slightly convex, straight; calyx ovoid or campanulate.   (7)
+ Corolla 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; calyx tubular or campanulate.   (8)
       
7 (6) Nutlets obtuse at apex; upper corolla lip emarginate, corolla tube hairy annulate or not inside; inflorescences not slender and pendulous   74 Elsholtzia
+ Nutlets beaked at apex; upper corolla lip entire, corolla tube irregularly hairy annulate in throat and at base of stamens; inflorescences slender, pendulous   75 Rostrinucula
       
8 (6) Calyx teeth equal; corolla tube not hairy annulate inside; filaments densely puberulent basally; shrubs or small trees   73 Leucosceptrum
+ Calyx teeth slightly unequal; corolla tube villous annulate inside; filaments glabrous; herbs or subshrubs   76 Comanthosphace

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