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Lamiaceae Lindley

唇形科 chun xing ke

Authors: Xi-wen Li & Ian C. Hedge

Lamiophlomis rotata
Image File

Herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, annual or perennial, usually aromatic. Stems and branches usually 4-angled. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple to pinnately dissected or compound, without stipules. Inflorescences generally compound, sometimes flowers solitary and axillary; verticillasters 2- to many flowered, subtended by leaves or bracts. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely subactinomorphic, bracteolate or not. Calyx persistent, 5-toothed, 2-lipped; upper lip 3-toothed or entire (deciduous in Scutellaria); lower lip 2- or 4-toothed; tube sometimes hairy annulate inside. Corolla limb usually 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed and lower 3-lobed, rarely upper lip entire and lower 4-lobed, also rarely limb (4- or) 5-lobed; tube hairy annulate inside. Stamens epipetalous, 4 or 2, free, rarely filaments connate, sometimes one staminodial; anther 1- or 2-celled, usually dehiscing longitudinally; disc persistent. Ovary superior, 2-celled and each cell 2-ovuled and style subterminal, or ovary 4-parted and each lobe 1-ovuled and style gynobasic (from bases of ovary lobes) with 2-cleft apex. Fruit usually 4 dry nutlets. Seeds with or without endosperm.

Approximately 3500 species in 220 genera, distributed worldwide, but mostly in the Mediterranean region and SW Asia. China has 807 species in 96 genera.

Cantino (Taxon 40: 441. 1991) suggests that Cardioteucris cordifolia C. Y. Wu, originally placed in the Lamiaceae, is identical with Caryopteris siccanea W. Smith (Verbenaceae, q.v.). Although the original author agrees with the identity of Cardioteucris cordifolia and Cardiopteris siccaneae, he believes that the generic placement of Cardioteucris is in the Lamiaceae because of its 2-lipped calyx and deeply 4-divided ovary. The last feature is aberrant in Caryopteris and all other Verbenaceae.

Wu Cheng-yih & Li Hsi-wen, eds. 1977. Labiatae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(2): 1-649, 66: 1-647.


Key 8

1 Calyx teeth subequal, posterior one larger, flat   82 Hanceola
+ Calyx 2-lipped (upper lip mostly 4-toothed and lower lip entire, rarely upper lip 3-toothed and lower lip 2-toothed), very rarely equally 5-toothed, if so then upper lip of corolla 4-lobed and lower entire.   (2)
       
2 (1) Lower lobe of corolla short, saccate, abruptly reflexed, narrow at base; calyx equally 5-toothed   83 Hyptis
+ Lower lobe of corolla navicular or plane or slightly concave.   (3)
       
3 (2) Lower lobe of corolla longer than other lobes, not reflexed, narrow at base; calyx various.   (4)
+ Lower lobe of corolla flat or slightly concave, not narrowed at base; calyx 2-lipped.   (8)
       
4 (3) Filaments connate, forming a sheath at base or on basal half; calyx dilated in fruit but not deformed; inflorescences various but always with brightly colored bracts; generally succulent herbs   88 Coleus
+ Filaments separate.   (5)
       
5 (4) Calyx suberect, 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed and lower 2-toothed, or upper lip entire and lower 4-toothed, throat oblique; verticillasters in dense ovoid, oblong, to cylindric spikes; corolla tube not saccate or spurred at base; herbs or subshrubs with succulent leaves   84 Anisochilus
+ Calyx erect or declined, equally 5-toothed or 2-lipped (upper lip 3-toothed, lower 2-toothed); verticillasters (2-)6- to many flowered, separate or in panicles or racemes; corolla tube saccate or spurred at base.   (6)
       
6 (5) Corolla tube with a conspicuous elongated spur at base or on basal half; calyx lower lip somewhat truncate; nutlets minutely pitted   87 Ceratanthus
+ Corolla tube saccate or short spurred at base; calyx lower lip ± 2-toothed; nutlets smooth or dotted.   (7)
       
7 (6) Upper corolla lip deeply 3-cleft at apex, middle lobe widened, notched; posterior filaments dilated, pilose on outer side at base   85 Skapanthus
+ Upper corolla lip equally or subequally 4-lobed at apex; posterior filaments not dilated, glabrous or rarely hairy on outer side at base   86 Isodon
       
8 (3) Lower lip of fruiting calyx entire, incurved; upper lip entire or with a small tooth on each side or 3-lobed; bracts always brightly colored.   (9)
+ Lower lip of calyx 2-toothed, teeth separate or connate.   (10)
       
9 (8) Upper lip of calyx 3-toothed, calyx tube 8-veined, with many transverse veins, pitted at base in fruit; inflorescences of loose racemes   90 Mesona
+ Upper lip of calyx subentire, calyx tube 10-veined, without transverse veins or foveolae at base in fruit; inflorescences of dense spikes   89 Nosema
       
10 (8) Upper lip of calyx not decurrent into tube.   (11)
+ Upper lip of calyx ± decurrent into tube.   (13)
       
11 (10) Fruiting calyx campanulate, ± bent downward, posterior 1 or 3 teeth slightly larger; lateral and anterior teeth nearly equal; flowers very small   93 Basilicum
+ Fruiting calyx tubular, elongate.   (12)
       
12 (11) Fruiting calyx obscurely veined, not pitted at base; verticillasters in dense terminal capitula   91 Acrocephalus
+ Fruiting calyx prominently veined, pitted at base; verticillasters separate, in terminal or axillary racemes or racemose panicles   92 Geniosporum
       
13 (10) Style lobes 2, equal, subulate; corolla tube included or exserted; upper lip of calyx obovate or circular   94 Ocimum
+ Style globose or clavate, entire or 2-cleft; corolla tube mostly exserted; upper lip of calyx ovate, teeth of lower lip mostly separate.   (14)
       
14 (13) Stamens and style included or slightly exserted; nutlets ovoid or subglobose, minutely tuberculate, glabrous   95 Orthosiphon
+ Stamens and style much exserted, their exserted parts ca. 2 × as long as corolla tube; nutlets ovoid or oblong, corrugate   96 Clerodendranthus

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