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Pakistan | Family List | Convolvulaceae

3. Convolvulus Linn., SP Pl. 153. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5:76.1754 , Boiss., Fl. Or. 4:84. 1879, C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:217.1883, van Oostroom in van Steenis, Fl. Males. ser. 1,4:436.1953, Grigor’ev in Schischkin, Fl. URSS, 19:6.1953, Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 2:2-21.1963, Sa’ad, Convolv. Sp. Canar. Isl., Medit. Reg., near & Middle East, 41.1967, Stace in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 3:79.1972.


National Herbarium, Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad. ( Now at Newnham College, Cambridge, England.)

Convolvulus virgatus

Credit: M.Y. Saleem

Shrubs, subshrubs or herbs, erect, prostrate or twining, spinous or not. Leaves simple, alternate, entire or lobed, often pubescent. Flowers bracteate, in terminal or axillary cymes, involucrate heads or solitary. Sepals free, equal or subequal. Corolla usually campanulate. Filaments epipetalous, usually unequal, gradually subulate. Ovary 2-4-locular, style single, stigmas 2, filiform, linear, or cylindrical. Fruit a capsule, glabrous or pubescent. Seeds 1-4, smooth or tuberculate, glabrous or pubescent.

A cosmopolitan genus of c. 250 species, mostly temperate and subtropical in distribution, rare in the tropics. Represented in Pakistan by 21 wild and cultivated species.

1 Stems and usually the branches spiny. Shrubs and undershruhs   (2)
+ Stems and branches not spiny. Herbs, shrubs and undershruhs   (5)
2 (1) Leaves sessile. Stigma linear or filiform. Sepals hairy. Seeds pubescent   (3)
+ Leaves petiolate. Stigma cylindrical. Sepals glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Seeds glabrous   2 Convolvulus leiocalycinus
3 (2) Branching divaricate. Flower 1, the pedicel flanked by spines on either side in the axils of bracteoles. Leaves not plicate   4 Convolvulus fruticosus
+ Branching not divaricate. Flowers solitary or in cymes, the pedicel not flanked by spines. Leaves often plicate   (4)
4 (3) Outer sepals 9-10 mm long, with long sericeous, spreading hairs. Corolla pink. Stems and branches densely sericeous, greyish-green   1 Convolvulus acanthocladus
+ Outer sepals 3 mm long, pubescent. Corolla white. Stems and branches appressed pubescent   3 Convolvulus spinosus
5 (1) Leaf base rounded, cordate or hastate   (6)
+ Leaf base cuneate or attenuate (sometimes a few leaves auriculate in C. glomeratus and C. virgatus)   (10)
6 (5) Stems prostrate and twining. Leaves long petioled, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Seeds tuberculate   20 Convolvulus arvensis
+ Stems not prostrate or twining. Leaves sessile to subsessile. Seeds not tuberculate   (7)
7 (6) Flowers solitary. Ovary hairy. Cultivated annuals   21 Convolvulus tricolor
+ Flowers 1-many, in heads. Ovary glabrous. Perennials, not cultivated   (8)
8 (7) Leaves obovate to suborbicular, margin undulate. Flower heads subsessile. Seeds glabrous. Branches rigid   8 Convolvulus scindicus
+ Leaves oblanceolate, lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, margin entire. Peduncles up to 20 mm long. Seeds pubescent. Branches not rigid   (9)
9 (8) Flowers 3-6, sepals 10-14 mm long, tomentose. Plant densely pale tomentose   12 Convolvulus pyrrhotrichus
+ Flowers 1-3(-5), sepals 4-7 mm long, villous. Plant pubescent   15 Convolvulus prostratus
10 (5) Stem base not woody. Erect, diffuse, creeping or sometimes twining herbs,   (17)
+ Stem base woody. Usually erect herbs, shrubs and undershrubs   (11)
11 (10) Flowers 1(-2), axillary   (12)
+ Flowers 1-many, in compact cymes or heads, axillary, or terminal   (13)
12 (11) Branching divaricate. Ovary and style hairy. Sepals acute to subacute, appressed sericeous Leaves mostly in the lower part of the plant   5 Convolvulus erinaceus
+ Branching broom-l ike, not divaricate. Ovary and style glabrous. Sepals obtuse, mucronate, glabrous. Leaves present throughout the length of the plant   6 Convolvulus pseudocantabricus
13 (11) Leaves basally congested. Flowers in subsessile cymes   (14)
+ Leaves not basally congested. Flowers in pedunculate cymes   (16)
14 (13) Ovary and fruit pubescent. Stem and leaves densely hirsute, hairs yellow-white, patent and appressed   11 Convolvulus aitchisonii
+ Ovary and fruit glabrous. Stem and leaves appressed sericeous, tomentose   (15)
15 (14) Basal leaves wide and scarious at the base. Bracts longer than the inflorescence. Seeds puberulous   9 Convolvulus lineatus
+ Leaves not wide nor scarious at the base. Bracts shorter than the inflorescence. Seeds glabrous   10 Convolvulus kotschyanus
16 (13) Ovary glabrous, stigma cylindrical. Seeds glabrous, tuberculate. Leaves and branches glabrous to sparsely pubescent   7 Convolvulus virgatus
+ Ovary hairy at top, stigma filiform. Seeds minutely pubescent. Leaves and branches to-mentellous   13 Convolvulus cephalopodus
17 (10) Flowers in subsessile or shortly pedunculate heads. Entire corolla glabrous   19 Convolvulus rhyniospermus
+ Heads long pedunculate. Corolla with hairy plaits on the outside, tube glabrous   (18)
18 (17) Sepals semi-membranous, glabrous   18 Convolvulus stocksii
+ Sepals tomentose to pilose, not membranous   (19)
19 (18) Flowers 4-10, bracts 12 mm long, ovate. Stigma cylindrical. Leaves sub-petiolate, the upper auriculate, lower attenuate   16 Convolvulus glomeratus
+ Flowers 1-3, bracts 5-8 mm long, lanceolate to oblanceolate. Stigma filiform. Leaves sessile, attenuate   (20)
20 (19) Inner sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Style as long as the stigma   14 Convolvulus pilosellifolius
+ Inner sepals obovate, caudate. Style 1.5-2 times the length of stigma   17 Convolvulus rottlerianus

  • List of lower taxa


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