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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 20



Stewart Herbarium, Gordon College, Rawalpindi.

Plants annual, biennial or perennial, erect, decumbent or prostrate, mostly herbaceous, glabrous, pubescent or spiny; branching alternate or dichotomous. Root adventitious or taproot; fibrous, short or elongated, tuberous, fusiform or globose. Stems often hollow. Leaves simple or compound, petiolate or sessile; leaf bases usually sheathing; leaf lamina variously shaped. Inflorescence poly¬gamous or bisexual; umbels compound or sometimes simple. Involucral bracts I to many or lacking. Rays I to many. Involucel of I to many bractlets or lacking. Calyx teeth evident or obsolete. Petals 5, usually 3-lobed, central lobe inflexed, sometimes outer petals larger. Stamens 5. Carpels 2, attached to a carpophore; carpophore sometimes lacking. Ovary inferior, 2-celled with 1 anatropous ovule in each cell; styles 2, often swollen at the base forming a stylopodium. Fruit schizocarpic, consisting of 2 mericarps, terete or compressed; mericarps usually with 5 primary ridges with furrows, valleculae, between them; occasionally secondary ridges present; ridges acute or obtuse, thick or thin, winged or not winged; resin canals, vittae, present between or within the ridges or obscure; vittae usually present on the commissural side. Inner seed face plane, concave or sulcate.

The Umbelliferae is a cosmopolitan family but it attains its greatest develop¬ment in the temperate regions. Some are extremely xerophytic, the majority, however, are mesophytic; a few like Sium, Berula and Oenanthe grow in or near water but in spite of the ecological specialization, the basic structure is remarkably uniform. The family can be easily recognised by its inflorescence which is an umbel. In most genera it is a compound umbel but in some genera like Bowlesia, Centella, Hydrocotyle and Dorema it appears to be or is a simple umbel. According to Mittal* the inflorescence in Centella, which usually consists of 3 flowers, is a simple cyme with the oldest flowers in the centre and in Hydrocotyle it is an “umbellate raceme” where the flowers are arranged in a whorl with the oldest flowers at the lowest level and the youngest at the top, but since the internodes are very short, it appears to be an umbel.

Primarily the family consists of small herbaceous plants though a few genera (e.g. Heteromorpha, Steganotaenia) are woody. Some species of Angelica, Anthriscus, Ferula, Dorema and Heracleum are quite tall. Resin canals occur in all parts of the plant. In the stem they may be present in the cortical region, the pericycle and the pith. In the leaves they accompany the veins and may lie above, below or on both sides of them. In the young root they may be present below the endo-dermis and opposite the xylem and the phloem strands. In the older roots the resin canals are usually found in the secondary bast and sometimes the wood. In the fruit they are present in the fruit wall. Their number, arrangement and position are of diagnostic value.

The family has about 3000 species. From W. Pakistan 56 genera and about 167 species have been reported.

Acknowledgements :—We would like to thank the Directors of the follow¬ing herbaria for the use of the facilities and for allowing the author to work in the herbaria : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K) ; British Museum, Natural History, London (BM) ; Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (E) ; Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC (US) ; Botanic Gardens, Bronx, New York (NY) ; Botany Department, University of California, Berkeley (UC) ; Natural History Museum, Vienna (W) ; Conservatoire & Jardin botaniques, Geneva (G) ; Forest Institute, Peshawar (PFI) ; North Regional Laboratories, Peshawar (PES); Botany Department, Karachi University, Karachi (KUH).

Thanks are also due to Miss A. Carter, Dr. I. Herrnstadt, Dr. L. Constance, Dr. J. Cannon, Dr. K.H. Rechinger and Dr. G. Leute for their suggestions and help in various ways and to Miss J. Lamond, Mr. B.L. Burtt, Mr. I. Hedge, Dr. R. Alava and Dr. R.R. Stewart for going through the manuscript and offering valuable criticism and to Mr. Hassan ud Din for the loan of specimens from the northern regions of Pakistan. We are indebted to Mr. B. L. Burtt and Mr. J. Slomp for the latin diagnoses of the new species and the genus described in this work and to Mr. L. Lauener (Edinburgh) for the translation of a passage in the Flora URSS into English and also to Mr. K.M. Vaid (Dhera Dun) for looking up Scaligeria specimens, for the author, in the Forest research Institute Herbarium (DD).

We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480.

1 Umbels apparently simple. Prostrate herbs. Carpophore lacking   (2)
+ Umbels compound, rarely simple on erect plants. Flowers laxly arranged or in dense heads. Plants prostrate to erect   (4)
2 (1) Plants glabrous or pubescent. Hairs simple   (3)
+ Plants stellate pubescent   Bowlesia
3 (2) Leaves finely pubescent. Involucre of 2 orbicular to Ovate bracts. Fruit with 2 reticulated secondary dorsal ridges. Leaf bases sheathing   Centella
+ Leaves sparsely pubescent. Involucre inconspicuous. Fruit without secondary ridges. Leaf bases not sheathing   Hydrocotyle
4 (1) Flowers and fruits in sessile or subsessile dense heads or head-like umbellets. Fruit ridges not conspicuous. Calyx prominent & persistent. Fruit with scales or uncinate hairs   (5)
+ Flowers and fruits pedicellate, sessile or subsessile. Fruit with primary or secondary ridges prominent or not winged; glabrous, scaly, pubescent to villous, hispid bristly or spiny. Leaves simple or compound   (6)
5 (4) Flowers in head-like irregularly compound, few rayed umbellets. Fruit with uncinate hairs. Leaves not rigid or spinosa   Sanicula
+ Flowers in dense bracteate heads. Fruit scaly. Leaves and bracts rigid and spinose   Eryngium
6 (4) Leaves simple with entire margins, narrowly linear to lanceolate or broadly ovate to almost orbicular   Bupleurum
+ Leaves simple or compound, variously lobed or divided   (7)
7 (6) Water or marsh plants. Fruit ridges corky or embedded in corky pericarp; ridges prominent, not winged   (8)
+ Plants not growing in water or marshes (except Apium). Fruit ridges prominent or not prominent, winged or not winged, corky or not corky   (11)
8 (7) Fruit ridges hidden in corky thickened pericarp. Vittae numerous   Berula
+ All or some fruit ridges prominent, corky; furrows I- vittate   (9)
9 (8) Lateral fruit ridges broad, corky; dorsal and intermediate ridges not prominent. Calyx teeth prominent   Oenanthe
+ All fruit ridges corky and prominent. Calyx teeth absent or minute   (10)
10 (9) Calyx teeth absent. Involucral bracts present   Sium
+ Calyx teeth minute. Involucral bracts absent   Cicuta
11 (7) Fruit with all or some ridges spongy, vesiculate, winged, wavy or transversely folded. Fruit surface not hairy   (12)
+ Fruit with all or some ridges prominent or not prominent or not prominent, winged or not winged. Fruit glabrous to pubescent, or hispid, setulose, tomentose to villous, papillate to muricate or tuberculate or equipped with barbs or bristles   (16)
12 (11) Fruit ridges corky, transversely folded, not winged; pericarp lax with vesicles; vesicles uniseriate. Root tuberous   Ormopterum
+ Fruit ridges winged, wavy or transversely folded; pericarp spongy or not spongy, tubercled or not tubercled. Roots not tuberous   (13)
13 (12) Fruit wall spongy or not spongy; tubercled or not tubercled. Bractlets pinnate or not pinnate, broadly white margined or green   (14)
+ Fruit wall spongy or not spongy, not tubercled. Bractlets minute   (15)
14 (13) Fruit wall spongy, tubercled. Bractlets green, pinnate   Trachydium
+ Fruit wall spongy or not spongy, tubercled or not tubercled. Bractlets pinnate or entire, broadly white margined   Pleurospermum
15 (13) Fruit wall spongy. Inner seed face sulcate   Prangos
+ Fruit wall not spongy. Inner seed face plane   Stewartiella
16 (11) Fruit strongly dorsally compressed; lateral ridges broadly narrowly winged   (17)
+ Fruit compressed to terete; lateral ridges inconspicuous to prominent, not winged   (29)
17 (16) Fruit lateral ridges broadly winged, tumid   (18)
+ Fruit lateral ridges broadly to narrowly winged, not tumid   (19)
18 (17) Calyx teeth minute. Winged fruit margin continuous with the seed   Ducrosia
+ Calyx teeth prominent. Winged fruit margin Separated from the seed by a hyaline area   Zosima
19 (17) Umbels simple, racemosely arranged   Dorema
+ Umbels compound   (20)
20 (19) Inflorescence branched; central umbel sessile or shortly pedunculate   (21)
+ Inflorescence not branched; umbels pedunculate(Sometimes sessile in Cortia and Apium)   (22)
21 (20) Fruit glabrous   Ferula
+ Fruit pubescent   Schumannia
22 (20) Fruit vittae extending about 2/3 the length of the seed, linear or club shaped. Petals radiant   Heracleum
+ Fruit vittae extending to the base of the fruit, linear.Petals radiant or not   (23)
23 (22) Fruit dorsal and intermediate ridges very prominent to narrowly winged. Fruit glabrous, pubescent, villous or spiny   (24)
+ Fruit dorsal and intermediate ridges not elevated; lateral winged. Fruit glabrous to pubescent   (28)
24 (23) Fruit 6—12 mm long; wings of the lateral ridges of the 2 mericarps separate at the margins   Angelica
+ Fruit not more than 6 mm long; wings of the lateral ridges of the 2 mericarps closely appressed at the margins   (25)
25 (24) Dorsal fruit furrows 2—4 vittate. Bracts and bractlets not divided   Ligusticum
+ Dorsal fruit furrows I – vittate. Bracts and bractlets divided or not divided   (26)
26 (25) Flowers yellow. Plants annual   Anethum
+ Flowers white purple. Plants perennial   (27)
27 (26) Stem base not fibrous. Umbels sessile or pedunculate. Rays not conferted. Calyx teeth prominent   Cortia
+ Stem base usually fibrous. Umbels pedunculate. Rays conferted. Calyx teeth prominent or obsolete   Selinum
28 (23) Plants shrubby. Stems many from the base   Platytaenia
+ Plants usually not shrubby. Usually I stem from the base   Peucedanum
29 (16) Fruit lateral ridges conspicuous. Fruit spiny, setosa, pilose or glabrous   (31)
+ Fruit lateral ridges on the commissural surface or obsolete. Fruit spiny   (30)
30 (29) Fruit lateral ridges on the commissural surface with a row of spines; the dorsal and the intermediate ridges with 2-3 rows of spines   Turgenia
+ Lateral ridges in conspicuous; the dorsal and the intermediate ridges with 2-3 spines each   Lisaea
31 (29) Fruit secondary ridges well developed. Fruit spiny, setulose to bristly or pilose to hispid   (32)
+ Fruit secondary ridges not developed. Fruit glabrous to pubescent or setulose   (35)
32 (31) Plants annual. Fruit spiny to hispid or setulose   (33)
+ Plants perennial. Fruit spiny to bristly   (34)
33 (32) Fruit 4-6 mm long; setulose or pilose. Calyx teeth long linear   Cuminum
+ Fruit 1-2.5 mm long; pilose to hispid. Calyx teeth obsolete   Psammogeton
34 (32) Involucral bracts divided. Inner seed face plane   Daucus
+ Involucral bracts not divided. Inner seed face sulcate   Torilis
35 (31) fruit glabrous, ovate to oblong, Involucral bracts pinnately divided. Stem short or reduced   Schultzia
+ Fruit glabrous to pubescent, scaly, muricate or setosa; oval to ovoid or linear to cylindrical. Involucral bracts divided or not. Stem well developed   (36)
36 (35) Fruit oval to ovoid, rarely cylindrical, not more than 3 times longer than broad. Inner seed face grooved or not grooved   (37)
+ Fruit liner to cylindrical or ellipsoid; more than 4 time as long as broad. Inner seed face grooved   (43)
37 (36) Roots tuberous to fusiform   (38)
+ Roots not tuberous or fusiform    
38 (37) Fruit sub-didymous, ridges thin or inconspicuous. Inner seed face concave, usually with 2 grooves   Scaligeria
+ Fruit ovoid to oblong or cylindrical; ridges prominent. Inner seed face plane to slightly concave   Bunium
39 Fruit pubescent to pilose, hispid, or muricate   (40)
+ Fruit glabrous or scaly   (48)
40 (39) Fruit muricate or with T-shaped or clavate hairs   Trachyspermum
+ Fruit hispid or pubescent   (41)
41 (40) Fruit laterally compressed; furrows 2-3 vittate   Pimpinella
+ Fruit slightly laterally compressed or subterete to dorsally compressed; furrows I- Vittate   (42)
42 (41) Plants perennial. Rays 2-10. Fruit slightly laterally compressed   Eriocycla
+ Plants annual or perennial. Rays 10-50. Fruit sub-terete to dorsally compressed   Seseli
43 (36) Plants annual. Leaf segments filiform to linear. Fruit hispid to setulose, I-3.5 cm long; beak elongated   Scandix
+ Plants perennial. Leaf segments linear to oval or ovate. Fruit glabrous to pubescent or hispid, 4-15 mm long   (44)
44 (43) Fruit glabrous, narrowed at the apex   Chaerophyllum
+ Fruit glabrate to pubescent, pilose or hispid   (45)
45 (44) Fruit up to 15 mm long, hispid all over the surface. Leaves with large oval to ovate segments or pinnately divided with linear to oval segments   (46)
+ Fruit 5-10 mm long, pubescent to pilose. Central flower of an umbellet sessile and fertile, surrounded by male flowers Leaf segments spiny   (47)
46 (45) Fruit attenuated at the base, covered with appressed hairs. Leaves large with oval to ovate segments   Osmorhiza
+ Fruit dark hispid, rarely glabrate. Leaves with linear to oval segments   Anthriscus
47 (45) Fruit pilose surrounded by the pedicels of the male flowers   Pycnocycla
+ Fruit finely pubescent in a depression in the receptacle and surrounded by the pedicels of the male flowers   Echinophora
48 (39) Vittae in fruit furrows obscure   (49)
+ Vittae in fruit furrows evident   (50)
49 (48) Fruit broadly ovoid to sub-orbicular, glabrous. Inner seed face. Inner seed face concave   Coriandrum
+ Fruit ovoid to oblong, glabrous or scaly. Inner seed face plane   Aegopodium
50 (48) Flowers yellow. Fruit furrows I-vittate. Plants perennial. Leaf segments filiform   Foeniculum
+ Flowers white to pinkish or greenish-yellow. Fruit furrows I to numerous vittate. Plants annual or perennial. Leaf segments filiform to oval or ovate   (51)
51 (50) Fruit furrows I-vittate   (52)
+ Fruit furrows 2 to numerous vittate   (55)
52 (51) Fruit oblong, 3-4 mm long; fruit pedicels very unequal   Carum
+ Fruit oblong to sub-globose, 1-3 mm long; fruit pedicels more or less equal   (53)
53 (52) Fruit oblong to ovate. Rays up to 50. Involucral bracts divided   (14)
+ Fruit broadly ovate or ovoid to sub-orbicular. Rays up to 20. Involucral bracts entire or lacking   (54)
54 (53) Peduncles lacking or up to 1 cm long. Involucral bracts lacking. Rays 1-10. Fruit c. 1 mm long   Apium
+ Peduncles 3-15 cm long, Involucral bracts 1-3 or lacking. Rays 3-20. Fruit c. 3 mm long   Petroselinum
55 (51) Inner seed face plane to slightly concave. Fruit furrows 2-4-vittate   Pimpinella
+ Inner seed face grooved or deeply sulcate. Fruit furrows 2-5-vittate or vittae numerous, minute   (56)
56 (55) Fruit oblong to ovoid; furrows 2-5-vittate. Plants 5-30 cm tall   Vicatia
+ Fruit broadly ovoid; furrows with numerous minute vittae. Plants 1-3 m tall   Conium

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