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Pakistan | Family List | Umbelliferae

Bupleurum Linn., Sp. Pl. 236. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5. 110.1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 2: 834 1872; C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 674. 1879; Wolff in Engler Pflanzenr. 4, 43:36. 1910; E. Nasir in Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 27:417 1954 Hiroe, Umb. Asia, 1: 75. 1958; Tutin in Tutin et al, Fl. Eur. 2: 345. 1968.

Annual or perennial, erect or procumbent to decumbent. Leaves simple entire, petiolate or sessile; bases usually sheathing, amplexicaul or perfoliate lamina acicular, linear, lanceolate, oval, ovate, obovate or almost round Umbels compound. Rays 1 to numerous. Involucral bracts present or lacking. Involucel of a few to many bractlets or lacking. Flowers yellow, yellowish-whit or greenish, dark purple to almost black. Calyx teeth obsolete. Stylopodium light brown to black, depressed to conical. Fruit elliptic to oblong or ovoid; ridges usually prominent, winged or not winged; furrows I-4-vittate; com- missure 2-6-vittate, Inner seed face plane to slightly concave.

A genus of about 150 species, found mostly in the temperate regions of Europe and Asia.

1 Umbels uniradiate. Leaves acicular, occasionally few linear   Bupleurum subuniflorum
+ Umbels multiradiate. Leaves linear, lanceolate, ovel, oblong, ovate to almost orbicular   (2)
2 (1) Upper leaves almost orbicular, perfoliate   (3)
+ Upper leaves linear to oval or ovate; not perfoliate   (4)
3 (2) Leaves glaucous green. Rays 5-10   Bupleurum rotundifolium
+ Leaves yellowish green. Rays 10-20   Bupleurum croceum
4 (2) Leaves broadly oval to ovate or only basal oval to ovate, upper gradually narrower   (5)
+ All leaves narrowly linear to oval   (6)
5 (4) Lower and upper leaves oval to ovate. Rays 5-7   Bupleurum lanceolatum
+ Basal leaves petioled, oval to ovate; upper gradually narrower. Rays 2-5   Bupleurum gilesii
6 (4) Middle and upper leaves with 13 or more veins   (7)
+ Middle and upper leaves with 9 or less veins   (13)
7 (6) Plants with almost black flowers. Bractlets ovate, 5-7 veined, as long or longer than the flowering umbellet   Bupleurum longicaule
+ Plants with yellow or black flowers. Bractlets lanceolate to oval, 3-5 veined, as long or longer or shorter than the flowering umbellet   (8)
8 (7) Bases of upper leaves completely amplexicaul, auriculata   (9)
+ Bases of upper leaves not or slightly amplexicaul, not auriculata   (11)
9 (8) Apices or upper leaves long acuminate. Flowers yellow   (10)
+ Apices of upper leaves not acuminate. Flowers dark purple   Bupleurum constancei
10 (9) Lower leaves linear; upper with inflated leaf bases   Bupleurum clarkeanum
+ Lower leaves linear to lanceolate; upper without inflated leaf bases   Bupleurum thomsonii
11 (8) Bracts present. Rays 5-12. Upper leaves cordate   (12)
+ Bracts frequently lacking or 1. Rays 5-8. Upper leaves oblong, not cordate   Bupleurum swatianum
12 (11) Bracts 1-3, Rays 8-12. Upper leaves oblong to broadly ovate, cordate. Bractlets shorter than the flowers   Bupleurum jucundum
+ Bracts 1-4, unequal. Rays 5-10. Upper leaves oval to ovate, amplexicaul. Bractlets as long or longer than the flowers   Bupleurum candollei
13 (6) Plants decumbent. Stems many form the base   (14)
+ Plants erect, sometimes decumbent. Stem 1 or more from the base   (16)
14 (13) Leaves narrowly linear to linear; bases slightly amplexicaul   Bupleurum gracillimum
+ Leaves linear to lanceolate or oval; bases broadly amplexicaul   (15)
15 (14) Flowers black. Bractlets oval to ovate   Bupleurum atroviolaceum
+ Flowers yellow. Bractlets linear   Bupleurum aitchisonii*
16 (13) Plants annual. Leaves oval, obtuse, punctate. Fruit furrows 1. vittate   Bupleurum tenue
+ Plants perennial. Leaves linear, lanceolate, falcate or oval. Fruit furrows 1-4-vittate   (17)
17 (16) Leaves oval. Pedicels 2-3 times longer than the flowers and the fruits   Bupleurum kohistanicum
+ Leaves linear to lanceolate. Flowers and fruits subsessile or the pedicels as long as the flowers and the fruits   (18)
18 (17) Cauline leaves linear, up to 2 cm long. Fruit furrows 1-vittate   Bupleurum stewartianum
+ Cauline leaves linear to falcate, more than 2 cm long.Fruit furrows 1-3-vittate   (19)
19 (18) Flowering umbels numerous. Fruit furrows 1- vittate   (20)
+ Flowering umbels not numerous. Fruit furrows 2-4-vittate   (21)
20 (19) Leaves linear to lanceolate. Stylopodium light brown. Bractlets as long or longer than the flowering umbellet   Bupleurum tenue
+ Leaves linear, up to 10 cm long. Stylopodium dark coloured. Bracts shorter than the flowering umbellet   Bupleurum nigrescens
21 (19) Leaves linear, 1-4 mm broad   (22)
+ Leaves linear to falcate, 3-10 mm broad   (24)
22 (21) Lower leaves narrowly linear, involute, forming a groove. Upper part of the plant almost leafless. Rays 3-7   Bupleurum canaliculatum
+ Lower leaves linear, not involute. Upper part of the plant with leaves   (23)
23 (22) Leaves stiff, coriaceous, 1-3 mm broad. Rays 3-9. Bractlets linear to lanceolate   Bupleurum exaltatum
+ Leaves not stiff or coriaceous, 2-4 mm broad. Rays 2-6. Bractlets oblong to lanceolate   Bupleurum linearifolium
24 (21) Leaves amplexicaul; upper part of the leaves long tapering   (25)
+ Leaves hardly amplexicaul; upper part of the leaves suddenly acute   Bupleurum hoffmeisteri
25 (24) Leaves linear to falcate   Bupleurum falcatum
+ Leaves linear; margins cartilaginous; base amplexicaul, narrow   Bupleurum marginatum

  • List of lower taxa


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