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Pakistan | Family List | Boraginaceae

24. Lappula Moench, Methodus. 416. 1794. Brand in Engler, Pflanzenr. iv. 252.136.1931; M. Popov in Schischkin, Fl. URSS. 19:403.1953; Riedl in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 48:68.1967; Kazmi in J. Arn. Arb. 51(3):499.1970.


Lappula consanguinea

Usually annuals. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, barely enlarging in fruit. Corolla funnel-form to ± campanulate, blue, sometimes white. Throat scales present. Fruiting pedicels short. Nutlets erect, ovoid-triangular to ovoid, surface tuberculate-verrucate, attached throughout their length to gynobase, sometimes heteromorphic, with nutlets winged or not, bearing glochidiate aculeate marginal appendages or toothed. Gynophore arising above the nutlets or not. Style hidden by nutlets or not.

A difficult genus of 45-50 species whose limits are not well defined due to possible hybridization. Closely related to Hackelia Opiz & Heterocaryum A. DC. The nutlet character is of importance in delimiting the various species and hence fruiting material is desirable or essential. Distributed mainly in temperate Europe and Asia, Australia and America. Represented in Pakistan by 9-10 species.

Species doubtfully in our area

Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort., Fl. Belg. 40.1827; Edmondson in Davis, Flora Turk. 6:258.1978.

Myosotis squarrosa Retz., Obs. Bot. 2:9.1781; Myosotis lappula L., Sp. Pl. 131. 1753; Lappula echinata Gilib., Fl. Lithuan. 25.1781, nomen illeg.: Lappula myosotis Moench, Methodus 417.1794; Riedl in Rech., Fl. Iran. 48:71. 19 7; Kazmi, l.c. 510.

Closely related to Lappula heteracantha, but with the outer series of appendages of nutlets more or less equalling the inner series.

Type: Not indicated.

Distribution: C. & E. Europe, URSS. Iran, Afghanistan,? Pakistan. Introduced to S. Africa and N. America.

Kazmi cites several gatherings (Kazmi, l.c. 511). The gathering R.R. Stewart 600 from Ziarat cited by Kazmi (1.c.) is Lappula microcarpa. Aitchison 198! (GH) is difficult to determine as it is not in fruiting stage. I have not been able to verify Crook-shanks gatherings that Kazmi mentions.

1 Nutlets not winged, uniformly tuberculate. Tubercles not bearing glochidia or spinule-like processes at apex; those towards base enlarged, often spinose   1 Lappula spinocarpos
+ Nutlets winged (weekly so in L. sinaica); appendages or tubercles glochidiate or often bearing spinule-like processes at apex   (2)
2 (1) Nutlets with an indistinct margin, bearing few appendages. Fruiting pedicel recurved, up to 8 mm long   2 Lappula sinaica
+ Nutlets with a well-developed appendiculate margin. Fruiting pedicel erect to ± recurved, up to 4 mm long   (3)
3 (2) Fruit sessile. Nutlets ovoid-triangular in outline. Margin broad, appendages tooth-like   3 Lappula sessiliflora
+ Fruit pedicellate or shortly so. Nutlets ovoid to ovate in outline. Margin not broad, appendages stipe-like   (4)
4 (3) Appendages of nutlets uniseriate   (5)
+ Appendages 2-3-seriate   (7)
5 (4) Nutlets c. 2 mm long; margin with appendages less than 1 mm long   4 Lappula microcarpa
+ Nutlets (2.8-) 34 mm long; margin with appendages 1-2 mm long   (6)
6 (5) Upper surface of leaves glabrous or sparsely hairy, green. Fruiting pedicel ± 3 mm long   5 Lappula semiglabra
+ Upper surface of leaves villous-grey. Fruiting pedicel c. 1-1.5 mm   6 Lappula patula
7 (4) Nutlets with marginal appendages 3-sedate   7 Lappula consanguinea
+ Nutlets with marginal appendages 2-seriate   (8)
8 (7) Stem appressed hairy   8 Lappula barbata
+ Stem with suberect hairs   (9)
9 (8) Outer series of marginal appendages much shorter than the inner series   9 Lappula heterantha
+ Outer series of marginal appendages ± the size of the inner series   10 Lappula squarrosa

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