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Pakistan | Family List | Campanulaceae

3. Campanula L., Sp. P. 163. 1753. Gen. Pl. 218.1754; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Lnd. 3:438. 1881; deCandolle, A Monographie des Campanulees, 1. 384. 1830; Federov in Schischkin, Fl. URSS. 24: 134. 1957; Rech.f. & Schim.-Czeika in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 13:7. 1965.


Plants perennial or annual, erect trailing or decumbent, glabrous, pubescent, or hirsute. Leaves simple, alternate or forming rosettes at the base. Inflorescence 1-many flowered, with racemes or spikes. Flowers blue to purple or white. Sepals 5, with or without reflexed appendages between lobes; calyx tube adnate to the ovary, segments 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate, funnel-shaped or tubular. Stamens 5, free, filaments dilated at the base. Ovary 3-locular; style cylindrical; stigmas 3. Fruit a capsule, elongated to ovoid, obovoid or round, with membran┬Čous walls; dehiscence by irregular pores at the bases or the sides. Seeds minute, numerous.

A genus of over 300 species, mostly in the temperate regions. Represented in Pakistan by c.15 species.

1 Calyx with appendages   (2)
+ Calyx without appendages   (5)
2 (1) Style as long or shorter than corolla   (3)
+ Style exserted beyond the lobes of the corolla   (4)
3 (2) Plants sparsely hairy. Corolla campanulate, glabrous   1 Campanula staintonii
+ Plants hirsute. Corolla tubular, hairy outside   2 Campanula leucantha
4 (2) Plants up to 40 cm tall, not caespitose. Stems glabrous to slightly hirsute, white   3 Campanula leucoclada
+ Plants c. 10 cm tall, caespitose. Stems hirsute, not white   4 Campanula polyclada
5 (1) Cauline leaves linear, 1 -5 cm long   (6)
+ Leaves lanceolate to ovate or oval, 5 mm to 12 cm long   (8)
6 (5) Radical leaves spathulate, cauline linear. Flower single, terminal. Capsule dehiscence towards the top   5 Campanula aristata
+ All leaves linear. Inflorescence a branched raceme. Capsule dehiscence towards the base   (7)
7 (6) Plants pubescent. Flowers c. 1.3 cm long. Calyx segments c. 5 mm long, not split to the base. Ribs of the sepals not prominent at the base   6 Campanula sylvatica
+ Plants almost glabrous. Flowers c. 2 cm long, Calyx segments c. 1 cm long, split almost to the base. Ribs of the sepals swollen at the base   7 Campanula sulaimanii
8 (5) Plants erect, densely hirsute. Flowers in clustered branched racemes   8 Campanula benthamii
+ Plants erect or not, glabrous, hirsute, strigose or pubescent. Flowers in lax racemes, not in clusters   (9)
9 (8) Plants hirsute to strigose or hoary pubescent. Flowers small, less than 1 cm long   (10)
+ Plants glabrous to hirsute or pubescent. Flowers up to 5 cm long   (12)
10 (9) Leaves narrow lanceolate, 5-15 mm long. Flowers numerous at tips of branches, 5-8 mm long. Capsule narrowed at the base   10 Campanula tenuissima
+ Leaves ovate to oblong, 5-50 mm long, hirsute to densely white pubescent. Flowers 3-5 mm long. Capsule rounded at the base   (11)
11 (10) Plants erect. Leaves 15-30 mm, hirsute, Flowers 3-5 mm long   11 Campanula tristis
+ Plants procumbent. Leaves 5-10 mm, densely white pubescent, margin crenate. Flowers c.5 mm long   13 Campanula argyrotricha
12 (9) Plants erect; up to 1 m tall. Stem glabrous Flowers up to 5 cm long   9 Campanula latifolia
+ Plants erect, less than 1 m tall or procumbent to straggling; hirsute or densely white hoary pubescent   (13)
13 (12) Plants densely hoary, tomentose. Flowers up to 2 cm long   12 Campanula cashmeriana
+ Plants hirsute. Flowers up to 1 cm long   (14)
14 (13) Plants procumbent. Flowers up to 3 mm long. Petals absent. Calyx teeth minute   14 Campanula alsinoides
+ Plants erect to procumbent. Flowers 1 cm long. Corolla campanulate. Calyx teeth prominent   15 Campanula pallida

  • List of lower taxa


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