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Compositae Giseke

菊科

PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Kuo-Fang; LI, Hui-Lin

Artemisia by LING, Yeou-Ruenn & PENG, Ching-I
Astereae by SOEJIMA, Akiko & PENG, Ching-I
Blumea by LEU, Wen-Pen & PENG, Ching-I
Eupatorium by CHUNG, Shih-Wen & PENG, Ching-I
Senecioneae by PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Shih-Wen

Emilia sonchifolia

Credit: HAST

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, sap sometimes milky. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple or pinnately lobed or divided, estipulate. Flowers 1 to many, arranged in heads, heads solitary or variously arranged into synflorescences. Receptacle variously shaped, either glabrous, setose, or paleaceous, subtended by an involucre of one or more series of bracts (phyllaries). Florets bisexual or unisexual, occasionally neutral. Calyx represented by a pappus of diverse forms or seemingly absent. Corolla gamopetalous, tubular or discoid with 4 or 5 equal teeth or lobes or 2-5 lobes fused and elongate and forming a 2-5 toothed limb or ligule, or corolla bilabiate. Stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments distinct, anthers introrse, connate and forming a tube around style, apex usually appendaged, base often caudate or sagittate. Pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-celled; style simple, slender, usually bifid; ovule solitary, anatropous. Fruit an achene, often crowned with a setose, paleaceous, or plumose pappus. Endosperm absent.

One of the largest families of flowering plants comprising about 1,535 genera and about 23,000 species, cosmopolitan. About 84 genera and 221 species, plus 20 additional infraspecific taxa in Taiwan.

  • Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland, 752 pp. Cronquist, S. 1955. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 53: 478-511.

  • Cronquist, S. 1980. Asteraceae Dumort. In L. S. Radford (ed.), Vascular Flora of the Southern United States. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, Vol. 1: 3-261.

  • Hoffmann, O. 1894. Compositae. In A. Engler and K. A. E. Prantl, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. IV. 5: 87-391.

  • Iwatsuki, K., T. Yamazaki, D. E. Boufford & H. Ohba (eds). 1995. Flora of Japan. Vol. 3(b)-Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Sympetalae(b). Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 181 pp.

  • Kitamura, S. 1937. Compositae Japonicae. Pars prima. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 13: 1-421, pls. 1-35.

  • Kitamura, S. 1940. Compositae Japonicae. Pars secunda. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 15(3): 285-446, pls. 1-11.

    Kitamura, S. 1942. Compositae Japonicae. Pars tertia. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 16(3): 155-292, pls. 1-8.

  • Kitamura, S. 1955. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quarta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 22(1): 77-126, pls. 2-4.

  • Kitamura, S. 1956. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quinta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 23(1): 105-168.

  • Kitamura, S. 1957. Compositae Japonicae. Pars sexta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 24(1): 1-79, pls. 1-7.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(1). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae. Science press, Beijing, 149 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 80(1). Compositae (10)-Lactuceae. Science press, Beijing, 342 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1987. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 78(1). Compositae (7)-Echinopsideae, Cynareae. Science press, Beijing, 226 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & S. W. Liu (eds.). 1989. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 77(2). Compositae (4)-Senecioninae. Science press, Beijing, 188 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. L. Chen (eds.). 1985. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 74. Compositae (1)-Vernonieae-Astereae. Science press, Beijing, 388 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. R. Ling (eds.). 1991. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(2). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae (2). Science press, Beijing, 321 pp.

  • Ling, Y. (ed.). 1979. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 75. Compositae (2)-Inuleae-Helenieae. Science press, Beijing, 422 pp.

  • Peng, C.-I & C. C. Hsu. 1978. Chromosome numbers in Taiwan Compositae. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19: 53-66.

  • Tseng, Y. C. (ed.). 1996. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 79. Compositae (9)-Mutisieae. Science press, Beijing, 113 pp.


    Tribe 3. Astereae

    1 Heads disciform or radiate; ray florets inconspicuous.   (2)
    + Heads distinctly radiate; ray florets conspicuous.   (5)
           
    2 (1) Outer florets tubular or with short ligules; pappus of capillary bristles.   (3)
    + Outer florets tubular, eligulate; pappus not of capillary bristles or lacking.   (4)
           
    3 (2) Plants herbaceous; achenes compressed.   Conyza
    + Plants scandent; achenes cylindric.   Microglossa
           
    4 (2) Pappus lacking.   Dichrocephala
    + Pappus united, crown-shaped.   Grangea
           
    5 (1) Ray florets yellow.   Solidago
    + Ray florets white, blue, pink or purple.   (6)
           
    6 (5) Heads less than 1 cm across.   (7)
    + Heads more than 1 cm across (except Aster subulatus); pappus with or without capillary bristle.   (9)
           
    7 (6) Rosulate herbs; leaves all radical with heads on leafless stems.   Lagenophora
    + Erect herbs; leaves cauline.   (8)
           
    8 (7) Achenes not beaked.   Myriactis
    + Achenes beaked.   Rhynchospermum
           
    9 (6) Involucral bracts broad, in several series, definitely imbricate; ray florets in 1 or 2 series.   Aster
    + Involucral bracts narrow, in few series, not definitely imbricate; ray florets in 2 or more series.   Erigeron

    List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


     

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