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Compositae Giseke

菊科

PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Kuo-Fang; LI, Hui-Lin

Artemisia by LING, Yeou-Ruenn & PENG, Ching-I
Astereae by SOEJIMA, Akiko & PENG, Ching-I
Blumea by LEU, Wen-Pen & PENG, Ching-I
Eupatorium by CHUNG, Shih-Wen & PENG, Ching-I
Senecioneae by PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Shih-Wen

Synedrella nodiflora

Credit: HAST

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, sap sometimes milky. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple or pinnately lobed or divided, estipulate. Flowers 1 to many, arranged in heads, heads solitary or variously arranged into synflorescences. Receptacle variously shaped, either glabrous, setose, or paleaceous, subtended by an involucre of one or more series of bracts (phyllaries). Florets bisexual or unisexual, occasionally neutral. Calyx represented by a pappus of diverse forms or seemingly absent. Corolla gamopetalous, tubular or discoid with 4 or 5 equal teeth or lobes or 2-5 lobes fused and elongate and forming a 2-5 toothed limb or ligule, or corolla bilabiate. Stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments distinct, anthers introrse, connate and forming a tube around style, apex usually appendaged, base often caudate or sagittate. Pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-celled; style simple, slender, usually bifid; ovule solitary, anatropous. Fruit an achene, often crowned with a setose, paleaceous, or plumose pappus. Endosperm absent.

One of the largest families of flowering plants comprising about 1,535 genera and about 23,000 species, cosmopolitan. About 84 genera and 221 species, plus 20 additional infraspecific taxa in Taiwan.

  • Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland, 752 pp. Cronquist, S. 1955. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 53: 478-511.

  • Cronquist, S. 1980. Asteraceae Dumort. In L. S. Radford (ed.), Vascular Flora of the Southern United States. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, Vol. 1: 3-261.

  • Hoffmann, O. 1894. Compositae. In A. Engler and K. A. E. Prantl, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. IV. 5: 87-391.

  • Iwatsuki, K., T. Yamazaki, D. E. Boufford & H. Ohba (eds). 1995. Flora of Japan. Vol. 3(b)-Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Sympetalae(b). Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 181 pp.

  • Kitamura, S. 1937. Compositae Japonicae. Pars prima. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 13: 1-421, pls. 1-35.

  • Kitamura, S. 1940. Compositae Japonicae. Pars secunda. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 15(3): 285-446, pls. 1-11.

    Kitamura, S. 1942. Compositae Japonicae. Pars tertia. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 16(3): 155-292, pls. 1-8.

  • Kitamura, S. 1955. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quarta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 22(1): 77-126, pls. 2-4.

  • Kitamura, S. 1956. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quinta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 23(1): 105-168.

  • Kitamura, S. 1957. Compositae Japonicae. Pars sexta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 24(1): 1-79, pls. 1-7.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(1). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae. Science press, Beijing, 149 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 80(1). Compositae (10)-Lactuceae. Science press, Beijing, 342 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1987. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 78(1). Compositae (7)-Echinopsideae, Cynareae. Science press, Beijing, 226 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & S. W. Liu (eds.). 1989. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 77(2). Compositae (4)-Senecioninae. Science press, Beijing, 188 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. L. Chen (eds.). 1985. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 74. Compositae (1)-Vernonieae-Astereae. Science press, Beijing, 388 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. R. Ling (eds.). 1991. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(2). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae (2). Science press, Beijing, 321 pp.

  • Ling, Y. (ed.). 1979. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 75. Compositae (2)-Inuleae-Helenieae. Science press, Beijing, 422 pp.

  • Peng, C.-I & C. C. Hsu. 1978. Chromosome numbers in Taiwan Compositae. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19: 53-66.

  • Tseng, Y. C. (ed.). 1996. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 79. Compositae (9)-Mutisieae. Science press, Beijing, 113 pp.


    Tribe 4. Inuleae

    1 Involucral bracts white or yellow, scarious and petal-like.   (2)
    + Involucral bracts green, herbaceous or membranaceous, not petal-like.   (4)
           
    2 (1) Central florets fertile; involucral bracts usually brown, yellowish or bright yellow.   Gnaphalium
    + Central florets sterile; involucral bracts bright white or sometimes rose colored at base.   (3)
           
    3 (2) Heads in a dense headlike corymb surrounded by many wooly bracteate leaves; pappus connate at base into a ring.   Leontopodium
    + Heads not surrounded by bracteate leaves; pappus free at base.   Anaphalis
           
    4 (1) Heads minute, secondarily aggregated into globose heads 5-7 mm across.   Sphaeranthus
    + Heads axillary, corymbose, racemose or paniculate.   (5)
           
    5 (4) Pappus wanting.   (6)
    + Pappus setaceous.   (7)
           
    6 (5) Plants erect, branched apically; involucre subtended by 2-5 bracteate leaves; beak of achenes short, glandular.   Carpesium
    + Plants ascending-prostrate, much branched at base; involucre not subtended by bracteate leaves; achenes truncate at apex.   Epaltes
           
    7 (5) Stems distinctly winged; heads nodding or erect.   (8)
    + Leaves not decurrent, stems not winged; heads erect.   (9)
           
    8 (7) Leaves narrowly oblong; heads often nodding; involucre ovoid, bracts recurvate at tips.   Laggera
    + Leaves lanceolate to broadly lanceolate; heads erect or ascending; involucre hemispheric, bracts appressed.   Pluchea (P. sagittalis)
           
    9 (7) Heads usually in panicles; outer involucral bracts herbaceous, linear to linear-oblong; corolla yellow.   Blumea
    + Heads in corymbs; outer involucral bracts rather coriaceous, broadly ovate; corolla violet.   Pluchea

    List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


     

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