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Compositae Giseke

菊科

PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Kuo-Fang; LI, Hui-Lin

Artemisia by LING, Yeou-Ruenn & PENG, Ching-I
Astereae by SOEJIMA, Akiko & PENG, Ching-I
Blumea by LEU, Wen-Pen & PENG, Ching-I
Eupatorium by CHUNG, Shih-Wen & PENG, Ching-I
Senecioneae by PENG, Ching-I & CHUNG, Shih-Wen

Hemistepta lyrata

Credit: HAST

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, sap sometimes milky. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple or pinnately lobed or divided, estipulate. Flowers 1 to many, arranged in heads, heads solitary or variously arranged into synflorescences. Receptacle variously shaped, either glabrous, setose, or paleaceous, subtended by an involucre of one or more series of bracts (phyllaries). Florets bisexual or unisexual, occasionally neutral. Calyx represented by a pappus of diverse forms or seemingly absent. Corolla gamopetalous, tubular or discoid with 4 or 5 equal teeth or lobes or 2-5 lobes fused and elongate and forming a 2-5 toothed limb or ligule, or corolla bilabiate. Stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments distinct, anthers introrse, connate and forming a tube around style, apex usually appendaged, base often caudate or sagittate. Pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-celled; style simple, slender, usually bifid; ovule solitary, anatropous. Fruit an achene, often crowned with a setose, paleaceous, or plumose pappus. Endosperm absent.

One of the largest families of flowering plants comprising about 1,535 genera and about 23,000 species, cosmopolitan. About 84 genera and 221 species, plus 20 additional infraspecific taxa in Taiwan.

  • Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland, 752 pp. Cronquist, S. 1955. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 53: 478-511.

  • Cronquist, S. 1980. Asteraceae Dumort. In L. S. Radford (ed.), Vascular Flora of the Southern United States. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, Vol. 1: 3-261.

  • Hoffmann, O. 1894. Compositae. In A. Engler and K. A. E. Prantl, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. IV. 5: 87-391.

  • Iwatsuki, K., T. Yamazaki, D. E. Boufford & H. Ohba (eds). 1995. Flora of Japan. Vol. 3(b)-Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Sympetalae(b). Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 181 pp.

  • Kitamura, S. 1937. Compositae Japonicae. Pars prima. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 13: 1-421, pls. 1-35.

  • Kitamura, S. 1940. Compositae Japonicae. Pars secunda. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 15(3): 285-446, pls. 1-11.

    Kitamura, S. 1942. Compositae Japonicae. Pars tertia. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 16(3): 155-292, pls. 1-8.

  • Kitamura, S. 1955. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quarta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 22(1): 77-126, pls. 2-4.

  • Kitamura, S. 1956. Compositae Japonicae. Pars quinta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 23(1): 105-168.

  • Kitamura, S. 1957. Compositae Japonicae. Pars sexta. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 24(1): 1-79, pls. 1-7.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(1). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae. Science press, Beijing, 149 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1983. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 80(1). Compositae (10)-Lactuceae. Science press, Beijing, 342 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & C. Shih (eds.). 1987. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 78(1). Compositae (7)-Echinopsideae, Cynareae. Science press, Beijing, 226 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & S. W. Liu (eds.). 1989. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 77(2). Compositae (4)-Senecioninae. Science press, Beijing, 188 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. L. Chen (eds.). 1985. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 74. Compositae (1)-Vernonieae-Astereae. Science press, Beijing, 388 pp.

  • Ling, Y. & Y. R. Ling (eds.). 1991. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 76(2). Compositae (3)-Anthemideae (2). Science press, Beijing, 321 pp.

  • Ling, Y. (ed.). 1979. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 75. Compositae (2)-Inuleae-Helenieae. Science press, Beijing, 422 pp.

  • Peng, C.-I & C. C. Hsu. 1978. Chromosome numbers in Taiwan Compositae. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19: 53-66.

  • Tseng, Y. C. (ed.). 1996. Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. Vol. 79. Compositae (9)-Mutisieae. Science press, Beijing, 113 pp.


    Tribe 5. Heliantheae

    1 Plants shrub-like, to 3 m tall; most leaves alternate except at lower nodes; heads more than 10 cm across.   Tithonia
    + Plants herbaceous, prostrate to erect; most leaves opposite; heads less than 8 cm across.   (2)
           
    2 (1) Heads unisexual, plants monoecious; pistillate florets completely enclosed in a hard involucre.   (3)
    + Heads bisexual, floret not enclosed in a hard involucre.   (4)
           
    3 (2) Leaves broadly ovate to reniform, shallowly lobed; staminate heads nodding, in racemes, involucral bracts connate.   Ambrosia
    + Leaves pinnately to bipinnately lobed; staminate heads erect, in small clusters, involucral bracts free.   Xanthium
           
    4 (2) Ovary of disc floret rudimentary, sterile, style unbranched; pappus of ray florets of 2 petaloid scales.   Parthenium
    + Ovary of disc floret well developed, fertile, style branched; pappus absent or various, but not of 2 petaloid scale.   (5)
           
    5 (4) Involucral bracts stipitate-glandular, horizontally spreading; pappus absent.   Sigesbeckia
    + Involucral bracts not glandular; pappus present or reduced.   (6)
           
    6 (5) Heads subsessile, axillary.   (7)
    + Heads distinctly pedunculate.   (8)
           
    7 (6) Stems prostrate, with adventivious roots at base; heads solitary at each node; achenes of ray florets not winged.   Calyptocarpus
    + Stems erect, without adventivious roots at base; heads aggregated; achenes of ray florets with lacerate, winged margins.   Synedrella
           
    8 (6) Pappus of 2-4 retrorsely spinulose awns.   (9)
    + Pappus not as above.   (10)
           
    9 (8) Leaves chiefly radical at anthesis; cauline leaves few, alternate.   Glossocardia
    + Leaves chiefly cauline at anthesis; cauline leaves many, opposite.   (10)
           
    10 (9) Achenes beaked.   Cosmos
    + Achenes not beaked.   Bidens
           
    11 Receptacle eventually conspicuously conical.   (12)
    + Receptacle flat or slightly convex.   (13)
           
    12 (11) Achenes obpyramidal; receptacles finally 1-1.5 mm tall.   Galinsoga
    + Achenes laterally compressed; receptacle eventually 6-7 mm tall.   1 Acmella
           
    13 (11) Pappus feathery.   Tridax
    + Pappus not feathery.   (14)
           
    14 (13) Ray florets numerous, white, linear.   Eclipta
    + Ray florets 4-15, golden yellow, oblong-oblanceolate.   Wedelia

    List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


     

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