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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 1

1 Corolla less than 1 cm.   (2)
+ Corolla more than 1 cm.   (3)
2 (1) Leaves herbaceous, triangular, 0.7-1.7 × 0.8-1.8 cm, sparsely strigose, densely strigose along midvein abaxially   44 Scutellaria tienchueanensis
+ Leaves membranous, narrowly triangular-ovate to oblong, 1.3-3 × 0.8-3.2 cm, sparsely white pilose   45 Scutellaria tenera
3 (1) Corolla tube straight, not zigzag.   (4)
+ Corolla tube zigzag.   (6)
4 (3) Stem leaves membranous to papery, margin conspicuously dentate; corolla 1.4-2 cm   Key 3 (see List of Keys below)
+ Stem leaves ± leathery, rarely papery, shallowly undulate-serrate to subentire on apical 2/3; corolla (1.5-)2-3 cm.   (5)
5 (4) Leaves less than 2 cm, adaxially corrugate; plants prostrate herbs on rocks   8 Scutellaria playfairii
+ Leaves to more than 2 cm, not corrugate; plants tall herbs or subshrubs   Key 2 (see List of Keys below)
6 (3) Plants with dense, spreading or upwardly curved gray to yellowish hirsute hairs   40 Scutellaria mairei
+ Plant with different types of hairs.   (7)
7 (6) Stem leaves 1.5-3 × 1.1-2.4 cm, triangular to triangular-ovate, shallowly dentate to incised-dentate   41 Scutellaria tenax
+ Stem leaves to more than 3 × 2.4 cm, ovate to ovate-cordate, regularly crenulate.   (8)
8 (7) Stems and leaves white pubescent; corolla rose, to 2.3 cm   43 Scutellaria tapintzeensis
+ Stems and leaves white pilose; corolla blue-purple, 1.2-1.5 cm   42 Scutellaria teniana

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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