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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 3

1 Plants low, ascending or diffuse herbs.   (2)
+ Plants moderate to tall, erect or prostrate herbs.   (11)
2 (1) Leaves cordate-ovate or circular-ovate to elliptic, apex obtuse to rounded, margin regularly crenate.   (3)
+ Leaves triangular-ovate to rhombic-ovate, apex acute to obtuse, margin dentate to dentate-serrate.   (6)
3 (2) Plants stoloniferous, ± scapose; leaves initially in a rosette, becoming decussate after elongation of internodes   30 Scutellaria tayloriana
+ Plants rhizomatous; stem leaves conspicuous.   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade glabrous except along veins abaxially   31 Scutellaria laeteviolacea
+ Leaf blade hairy.   (5)
5 (4) Middle stem leaves 4-6 × 4-6 cm, densely floccose-pilose, regularly undulate-crenate; terminal inflorescences to 16 cm   32 Scutellaria lutescens
+ Middle stem leaves 2-2.6 × 2-2.6 cm, densely puberulent, strigose, or spreading villous, crenulate; terminal inflorescences 4-8(-12) cm   33 Scutellaria indica
6 (2) Stems and petioles spreading hirtellous   34 Scutellaria taiwanensis
+ Stems and petioles with upwardly curved pubescence or puberulent.   (7)
7 (6) Leaves 5-10 × 3-7 cm, membranous, sparsely appressed pubescent, remotely coarse dentate   39 Scutellaria megaphylla
+ Leaves 1.1-3.2(-5.5) × 0.8-3.5 cm, herbaceous to ± papery, if membranous then subglabrous, denticulate to dentate-serrate.   (8)
8 (7) Corolla 1-1.4 cm.   (9)
+ Corolla 1.8-2.2(-2.5) cm.   (10)
9 (8) Leaves triangular-ovate to ovate, 1.2-2.4 cm wide, apex acute to obtuse, base subtruncate, roundish or sometimes shallowly cordate   35 Scutellaria pseudotenax
+ Leaves narrowly ovate to narrowly triangular-ovate, 0.8-1.4 cm wide, apex acute, base widely cuneate to subtruncate   36 Scutellaria yingtakensis
10 (8) Leaves ovate to rhombic-ovate, base cuneate to subrounded, margin obtusely dentate to coarsely crenate on apical 2/3   37 Scutellaria inghokensis
+ Leaves ovate to triangular-ovate, base truncate to truncate-cuneate, margin obtusely dentate to incised-dentate   38 Scutellaria pekinensis
11 (1) Stems subglabrous, finely pubescent, or puberulent.   (12)
+ Stems with ± dense, simple or septate hairs.   (18)
12 (11) Leaf blade abaxially blackish or dark purple-black when dry, midvein strigillose.   (13)
+ Leaf blade abaxially green or purplish when dry, midvein glabrous or subglabrous.   (14)
13 (12) Blade of middle stem leaves ovate, 6-7 × 3.2-3.5 cm, apex acute, base broadly cuneate; corolla ca. 2.3 cm   14 Scutellaria nigricans
+ Blade of middle stem leaves cordate, 3-5.5 × 2.7-3.8 cm, apex obtuse, base cordate; corolla 1.4-1.6 cm   15 Scutellaria nigrocardia
14 (12) Leaf blade broadly cuneate to roundish at base, shallowly dentate to dentate-serrate at margin; corolla yellowish white to purple-blue.   (15)
+ Leaf blade ± cordate at base, regularly crenate at margin; corolla red to purplish.   (16)
15 (14) Corolla yellowish white to white; calyx pubescent; stems retrorse pubescent along angles and nodes   19 Scutellaria anhweiensis
+ Corolla purple-blue; calyx veins and margin sparsely pubescent; stems subglabrous basally, with appressed hairs apically, angles and nodes with hooked retrorse pubescence   20 Scutellaria chekiangensis
16 (14) Corolla ca. 2.7 cm, inconspicuously saccate at base of tube; calyx sparsely pubescent; rachis of inflorescence finely pubescent   17 Scutellaria wenshanensis
+ Corolla 2-2.3 cm, conspicuously saccate at base of tube; calyx pubescent or glandular puberulent; rachis of inflorescence densely glandular puberulent.   (17)
17 (16) Corolla ca. 2.3 cm; stems densely puberulent; leaves membranous, petiole 1.5-3.5 cm, densely puberulent   16 Scutellaria chihshuiensis
+ Corolla ca. 2 cm; stems subglabrous to glabrous; leaves papery, petiole 0.2-2 cm or more, subglabrous or glabrous   18 var. sikkimensis
18 (11) Corolla spurred in front at base, spur ca. 2.5 mm, decurrent   29 Scutellaria calcarata
+ Corolla conspicuously or inconspicuously saccate in front at base.   (19)
19 (18) Leaf base rounded, sometimes shallowly cordate.   (20)
+ Leaf base conspicuously cordate.   (23)
20 (19) Leaves broadly ovate, 4-7.5 cm, coarsely or sometimes double crenate to coarsely crenate-serrate.   (21)
+ Leaves lanceolate-oblong to ovate, 1.7-6 cm, irregularly nearly double serrate to regularly crenate.   (22)
21 (20) Leaf blade obtuse at apex, rounded to shallowly cordate at base, coarsely or sometimes double crenate at margin, adaxially sparsely pilose, abaxially densely pilose; petiole densely spreading pilose   21 Scutellaria grossecrenata
+ Leaf blade acute at apex, broadly cuneate to roundish at base, coarsely mucronate crenate-serrate at margin, densely hirtellous along veins otherwise sparsely hirtellous; petiole densely puberulent   22 Scutellaria yangbiense
22 (20) Leaves lanceolate-oblong to lanceolate-ovate, 3-6 × 1-2 cm, irregularly nearly double serrate; corolla ca. 1.5 cm   23 Scutellaria laxa
+ Leaves ovate, 1.7-4 × 0.8-2.5 cm, regularly crenate; corolla (2-) 2.6-2.9 cm   24 Scutellaria macrosiphon
23 (19) Stems with dense, upwardly curved pubescence   25 Scutellaria meehanioides
+ Stems with ± dense, spreading hairs.   (24)
24 (23) Corolla 1-1.2 cm; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate; fascicled fibrous rootlets slightly swollen at middle   26 Scutellaria microviolacea
+ Corolla 1.6-1.8 cm; leaves cordate or triangular-ovate; fascicled fibrous rootlets not swollen.   (25)
25 (24) Leaves triangular-ovate, middle stem leaves to 6 × 4 cm, apex acute, base cordate to subtruncate, crenate-serrate or sometimes double crenate-serrate, densely puberulent; plants densely puberulent and glandular hairy throughout   27 Scutellaria caryopteroides
+ Leaves cordate, 1-2.5 × 1-3 cm, apex acute, base cordate, regularly crenate, densely strigose; plants spreading white hirtellous throughout   28 Scutellaria purpureocardia

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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