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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 6

1 Rhizomes moniliform, with enlarged tuberlike internodes; flowers ca. 3.2 cm   88 Scutellaria moniliorrhiza
+ Rhizomes not moniliform; flowers less than 2.5 cm.   (2)
2 (1) Leaves ± hastate.   (3)
+ Leaves not hastate.   (5)
3 (2) Flowers to 1.3 cm; floral leaves bractlike, unlike stem leaves   84 Scutellaria barbata
+ Flowers less than 1 cm; floral and stem leaves similar but reduced.   (4)
4 (3) Leaves cordate, pilose; calyx pilose, scutellum ca. 0.3 mm; corolla 9-10 mm   83 Scutellaria shansiensis
+ Leaves ovate-triangular to triangular, adaxial surface and abaxial veins puberulent, margin ciliolate; calyx veins and margin ciliolate, scutellum ca. 1 mm; corolla 5-6.5 mm   82 Scutellaria dependens
5 (2) Leaves less than 7 mm wide.   (6)
+ Leaves more than 7 mm wide.   (7)
6 (5) Flowers to 2.5 cm; leaves densely hairy, adaxially glabrous, or with scattered fine strigose hairs, abaxially glandular except the finely pubescent veins and margin   80 Scutellaria regeliana
+ Flowers 2-2.2 cm; leaves subglabrous or abaxially sparsely and finely pubescent along veins, minutely yellow glandular   81 Scutellaria linarioides
7 (5) Flowers less than 2 cm; leaf blade abaxially without glands   79 Scutellaria galericulata
+ Flowers more than 2 cm; leaf blade abaxially glandular.   (8)
8 (7) Leaves glabrous, sparsely puberulent, appressed pubescent, or villous   85 Scutellaria scordifolia
+ Leaves densely hirsute or strigose.   (9)
9 (8) Stems with spreading branches from base; leaves usually elliptic, rarely ovate to oblong, apex obtuse to rounded, shallowly dentate to subentire, sometimes serrate, densely hairy; plants of beaches   86 Scutellaria strigillosa
+ Stems unbranched or few branched; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, apex acute to subobtuse, acute-serrate, densely hairy; plants of inland areas   87 Scutellaria tuminensis

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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