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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 4

1 Stem leaves conspicuously, remotely dentate-serrate.   (2)
+ Stem leaves crenate to subentire or entire.   (3)
2 (1) Leaves membranous, oblong, 3-5.5 × 1.3-2 cm, base shallowly truncate-cordate, sparsely white hirsute adaxially and along veins abaxially to subglabrous or glabrous   46 Scutellaria sciaphila
+ Leaves papery, oblong-ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 2-4 × 0.8-1.4 cm, base roundish to truncate, puberulent   47 Scutellaria macrodonta
3 (1) Stem leaves ± crenate to crenate-serrate.   (4)
+ Stem leaves entire or subentire.   (7)
4 (3) Corolla yellow-white, yellow, to green-yellow, with tinged purplish spots or lines   48 Scutellaria likiangensis
+ Corolla purple or purple-blue.   (5)
5 (4) Corolla less than 2 cm   49 Scutellaria chungtienensis
+ Corolla more than 2 cm.   (6)
6 (5) Stems and leaves very densely white pilose; leaves broadly ovate to oblong, conspicuously crenate-serrate; corolla 2-3.7 cm   50 Scutellaria forrestii
+ Stems and leaves subglabrous with recurved or nearly patent puberulent or pilose hairs; leaves oblong, folded, inconspicuously crenate to entire above base; corolla 2.4-3 cm   51 Scutellaria amoena
7 (3) Stem leaves of two kinds, lower stem leaves crowded, ovate-lanceolate to ovate, upper stem leaves widely spaced, linear   57 Scutellaria orthocalyx
+ Stem leaves homomorphic, upper leaves gradually reduced.   (8)
8 (7) Stems with dense or sparse, recurved or sometimes nearly patent glandular pubescence; leaf surfaces with many yellow glands   53 Scutellaria viscidula
+ Stems without glandular pubescence, subglabrous or with variable pubescence; leaves without glands or glandular only abaxially.   (9)
9 (8) Abaxial leaf surface with impressed glands.   (10)
+ Abaxial leaf surface without impressed glands.   (11)
10 (9) Plants (15-)30-120 cm tall; stems subglabrous or with upwardly curved or spreading pubescence; stem leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-4.5 × (0.2-)0.5-1.2 cm; racemes terminal on stems and branches so that all racemes form a terminal panicle   52 Scutellaria baicalensis
+ Plants 10-30 cm tall; stems sparsely spreading, white pilose along angles and bearded on nodes otherwise subglabrous; stem leaves ovate or apical ones sometimes oblong, 2-3.4 × 0.7-1.4 cm; racemes terminal on stems, not forming a panicle on apical part of plant   55 Scutellaria hypericifolia
11 (9) Stems glabrous; leaves 4-5 cm; corolla yellowish white   56 Scutellaria spectabilis
+ Stems hairy, at least on angles, hairs spreading or recurved; leaves 1.4-4 cm; corolla rose, purple, to purple-blue   54 Scutellaria rehderiana

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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