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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 2

1 Rachis and pedicels of inflorescence subglabrous or finely pubescent.   (2)
+ Rachis and pedicels of inflorescence glandular.   (6)
2 (1) Blade ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate; corolla dark purple or blue.   (3)
+ Blade ovate to subcircular, apex acute to obtuse; corolla cream-white or white tinged with purple.   (4)
3 (2) Herbs to 1 m tall; leaves (4-)6-8-undulate-dentate; corolla dark purple, to 3.1 cm   2 Scutellaria javanica
+ Herbs ca. 30 cm or more tall; leaves 3- or 4-undulate-serrate; corolla blue, ca. 2.5 cm   4 Scutellaria formosana
4 (2) Inflorescences many flowered, to 13 cm; bracts narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate, 0.5-1 mm wide   7 var. lotungensis
+ Inflorescences few flowered, ca. 6 cm at anthesis; bracts ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, more than 2.5 mm wide.   (5)
5 (4) Blade broadly ovate to subcircular, 2.5-5 × 1.8-4.3 cm, adaxially sparsely puberulent, abaxially densely puberulent, 4-6-undulate-crenate, lateral veins 3-paired; inflorescences many flowered; flowers crowded ca. 2 cm; calyx ca. 2.8 mm   3 Scutellaria hainanensis
+ Blade ovate, 2-3.8 × 1-2.2 cm, subglabrous, 3- or 4-crenate, lateral veins 2-paired; inflorescences few flowered; flowers widely spaced, ca. 1.6 cm; calyx to 5 mm   6 Scutellaria oligophlebia
6 (1) Petiole of stem leaf 0-4 mm   5 Scutellaria tsinyunensis
+ Petiole of stem leaf more than 7 mm.   (7)
7 (6) Leaves elliptic-ovate to obovate or subcircular, apically rounded to acute, basally cuneate to rounded, conspicuously 3-veined   9 Scutellaria obtusifolia
+ Leaves elliptic to obovate-elliptic, apically acute to acuminate, basally cuneate, rarely roundish, not 3-veined.   (8)
8 (7) Stems and petioles reddish   10 Scutellaria yunnanensis
+ Stems and petioles not reddish.   (9)
9 (8) Leaf venation conspicuously elevated   13 Scutellaria reticulata
+ Leaf venation inconspicuously elevated.   (10)
10 (9) Stem leaf blade abaxially densely puberulent; bracts linear, shorter than pedicels; corolla 2.6-2.9 cm, lateral lobes of lower lip ovate; gynophore ca. 0.5 mm   11 Scutellaria mollifolia
+ Stem leaf blade abaxially glabrous; bracts elliptic, longer than pedicels; corolla ca. 2.2 cm, lateral lobes of lower lip triangular; gynophore inconspicuous   12 Scutellaria sichourensis

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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