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11. Scutellaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 598. 1753.

黄芩属 huang qin shu

Scutellaria hypericifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, not aromatic. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or spikes; floral leaves usually bractlike apically. Flowers axillary, opposite or sometimes alternate apically. Calyx short tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, 2-lipped; lips entire, closed and ultimately divided to base along sutures in fruit; upper lip deciduous, with a transverse, rounded, concave, scalelike scutellum (shield) or without and abaxially conspicuously saccate; lower lip persistent. Corolla 2-lipped; tube exserted, arcuate or suberect, gradually widening to throat, base bent and saccate or spurred, usually puberulent annulate outside; upper lip erect, galeate; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, flattened, entire, lateral lobes ± joined to upper lip and sometimes spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, anterior 2 longest, underlying upper lip; anthers close together in pairs, bearded on cell aperture; posterior pair conspicuously 2-celled, ± apically acute, anterior pair 1-celled by abortion. Style subulate, apically unequally 2-cleft. Nutlets oblate, globose, to ovoid.

About 350 species: worldwide, but only a few in tropical Africa; 98 species in China.

A very isolated genus with unsatisfactory traditional divisions. Paton (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450. 1990) has proposed a revised classification of Scutellaria but did not deal with a large number of the Chinese taxa, and it is not possible to utilize his divisions in detail.

Key 5

1 Flowers in axils of mid and upper stem leaves, forming axillary racemes; floral leaves inconspicuous, bractlike, minute.   (2)
+ Flowers in axils of stem leaves and floral leaves of axillary fertile branches, inconspicuously crowded into axillary racemes; floral leaves similar to stem leaves, gradually reduced to bracts.   (4)
2 (1) Leaf blade broadly cuneate to rounded at base, undulate or remotely denticulate at margin, glabrous; corolla creamy yellow   78 Scutellaria delavayi
+ Leaf blade cordate to obliquely so at base, inconspicuously and remotely crenate at margin, at least adaxially ± hairy; corolla purplish to purple-red.   (3)
3 (2) Leaves sessile or subsessile, blade ovate, 1.9-3.5 × 0.9-2 cm   76 Scutellaria sessilifolia
+ Leaves with petiole 4-7 mm, blade ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5-8 × 2-3.5 cm   77 Scutellaria caudifolia
4 (1) Plants much branched, all branches fertile; leaves ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate.   (5)
+ Plants few branched, some branches fertile; leaves ovate.   (6)
5 (4) Corolla ca. 2 cm; leaves subrhomboid- to ovate-lanceolate, incised-serrate on apical 2/3   58 Scutellaria incisa
+ Corolla ca. 1.3 cm; leaves linear-lanceolate, inconspicuously 1- or 2-undulate-crenate apically   59 Scutellaria subintegra
6 (4) Fertile branches much elongated; flowers inserted in leaf axils; floral leaves similar to stem leaves, reduced.   (7)
+ Fertile branches short; flowers of basal fertile branches inserted only toward apex; flowers of upper fertile branches inserted along entire length; floral leaves reduced to bracts.   (14)
7 (6) Leaves subglabrous or very sparsely pubescent.   (8)
+ Leaves hirtellous, strigose, or pilose.   (9)
8 (7) Leaves 1.2-2.5 × 0.7-2.1 cm, pubescent and yellow glandular, margin coarsely 1-3-crenate; flowers purple or purple-blue, inserted on abbreviated fertile branches   60 Scutellaria axilliflora
+ Leaves to 6.2 × ca. 3 cm, subglabrous, abaxially with scattered scarlet glands, margin remotely undulate-crenate; flowers yellowish, inserted on elongated fertile branches   61 Scutellaria lotienensis
9 (7) Stems with spreading, slightly flaccid, white hirsute hairs.   (10)
+ Stems with upwardly or downwardly curved puberulent, pubescent, or hirtellous hairs.   (11)
10 (9) Plants few branched herbs; leaf base cordate, blade not corrugate; racemes 4-11 cm; scutellum on upper lip of calyx inconspicuously enlarged in fruit, oblate, ca. 2.5 × 4 mm; corolla tube hairy inside   62 Scutellaria pingbienensis
+ Plants much branched subshrubs; leaf base broadly cuneate to roundish, blade slightly corrugate; racemes 7-27 cm; scutellum on upper lip of calyx conspicuously enlarged in fruit, subcircular, ca. 5 × 5 mm; corolla tube glabrous inside   63 Scutellaria shweliensis
11 (9) Leaves 0.9-2.2 × 0.4-1.4 cm, 2- or 3-crenate   64 Scutellaria wongkei
+ Leaves 2-7 × (1.3-)1.5-4.6 cm, with many crenations.   (12)
12 (11) Fertile branches less than 10 cm, inflorescences terminal and lateral; leaves triangular-ovate, coarsely dentate or sometimes double dentate   65 Scutellaria hunanensis
+ Fertile branches more than 10 cm; inflorescences terminal; leaves ovate, regularly crenate.   (13)
13 (12) Stem leaves 2-5 × 1.5-3 cm, rounded to truncate at base, sparsely finely strigose; stems sparsely puberulent   66 Scutellaria bambusetorum
+ Stem leaves 6.5-7 × 4-4.6 cm, cordate at base, densely pilose; stems densely, retrorsely yellowish pubescent   67 Scutellaria chimenensis
14 (6) Middle lobe of lower corolla lip equally 4-lobed.   (15)
+ Middle lobe of lower corolla lip subentire or emarginate.   (16)
15 (14) Stems conspicuously winged, glabrous except at nodes; leaves ca. 1.5 × 1.2 cm   70 Scutellaria weishanensis
+ Stems not winged, white puberulent or white pilose; middle stem leaves ca. 4 × 2.6 cm   71 Scutellaria quadrilobulata
16 (14) Leaves entire to 3- or 4-dentate at base, apex entire.   (17)
+ Leaves conspicuously crenate to coarsely double serrate.   (18)
17 (16) Leaves 1.5-3(-4.5) × 1-2(-2.5) cm, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate, margin 3- or 4-dentate, base and apex entire; corolla to 2.5 cm, tube ca. 1.5 mm wide at middle, gradually dilated apically, to 5 mm wide at throat   68 Scutellaria franchetiana
+ Leaves 2-3.5 × 1.2-1.5 cm, apex acute to subacute, margin ± entire or inconspicuously crenate; corolla 1.8-2 cm, tube ca. 0.7 mm wide, gradually dilated apically, to ca. 4 mm at throat   69 Scutellaria stenosiphon
18 (16) Stems subglabrous or densely appressed, white pilose on angles, otherwise glabrous; leaves crenate to coarsely double serrate   74 Scutellaria omeiensis
+ Stems densely puberulent or floccose-pilose with upwardly curved hairs; leaves regularly crenate-serrate to acute-serrate.   (19)
19 (18) Stems densely floccose-pilose   72 Scutellaria tenuiflora
+ Stems with dense, upwardly curved puberulent hairs.   (20)
20 (19) Leaves lanceolate-ovate, acute-serrate, abaxially densely purple-red glandular   73 Scutellaria honanensis
+ Leaves ovate, serrate, abaxially without glands   75 Scutellaria scandens

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