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Pakistan | Family List

Caryophyllaceae

SHAHINA A. GHAZANFAR & YASIN J. NASIR

By S.A. Ghazanfar. Genera Minuartia and Silene revised by Y. J. Nasir


National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.

Thylacospermum caespitosum
Illustration

Credit: S. Hameed

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, often woody. Leaves simple, entire, usually opposite, less commonly alternate or whorled; stipulate or exstipulate. Flowers actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite or sometimes unisexual or the plant gynodioecious. Inflorescence simple or compound cymes or flowers solitary. Sepals 4-5 or absent, free or united, entire or lobed (bilobed or fimbriate), often with a limb and a claw. Coronal scales (ligules) present or absent. Stamens (0-)3-10, free, rarely adnate to the sepals. Ovary superior, 1-2-5-Jocular. Placentation free-central. Ovary, stamens and petals sometimes borne on a carpophore. Styles 2-5. Fruit a capsule dehiscing by as many or twice the number of valves or teeth as there are styles or berrylike and indehisceut. Seeds 1-many, globose to pyriform or reniform, with smooth or variously sculptured face, the back sometimes caniculate or winged.

A large family of 70 genera and about 1750 species, cosmopolitan. Represented in Pakistan by 26 genera and 110 species, distributed more or less through-out the country. Except for a few species, the family is of no economic value: Some species are cultivated in gardens.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the following Directors/Curators of Herbaria for the loan of herbarium specimens: BM, E, G, K, KUH, M, PPFI-B, W. Than are also due to Mr. I.C. Hedge of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for going through the manuscript and giving valuable suggestions. Dr. J.A. Ratter. Royal Botanic Garden; Edinburgh for information concerning the genera Spergula and Spergularia And Dr. C.E. Jarvis (BM, NH), London, for typication of Linnaean taxa.

The financial assistance provided by the U.S. & Department of Agriculture under PL-480 with coordination by Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad is gratefully acknowledged,


1 Sepals free, slightly united in Pseudostellaria   (2)
+ Sepals united, at least at the base   (17)
       
2 (1) Leaves alternate   16 Telephium
+ Leaves opposite or spuriously whorled   (3)
       
3 (2) Leaves stipulate   (5)
+ Leaves exstipulate   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaves densely imbricate. Plants forming dense, compact cushions (found above 4400m)   1 Thylacospermum
+ Leaves not imbricate. Plants not as above   (8)
       
5 (3) Stipules connate at the nodes   13 Spergularia
+ Stipules free   (6)
       
6 (5) Sepals keeled   15 Polycarpon
+ Sepals not keeled   (7)
       
7 (6) Axillary leaf fascicles present. Stamens 5-10. Seeds keeled or winged   12 Spergula
+ Axillary leaf fascicles absent. Stamens 5. Seeds neither keeled nor winged   14 Polycarpaea
       
8 (4) Sepals 4, unequal. Leaves closely adpressed to the stem   11 Bufonia
+ Sepals 5(-4), equal. Leaves not as above   (9)
       
9 (8) Flowers in umbels   7 Holosteum
+ Flowers solitary or in cymes   (10)
       
10 (9) Capsule globose to ovoid, dehiscing by valves or teeth which are neither reflexed nevolute   (11)
+ Capsule cylindric, dehiscing by small teeth, often reflexed or revolute   8 Cerastium
       
11 (10) Styles 4-5   (12)
+ Styles 2-3   (13)
       
12 (11) Leaves lanceolate to spathulate. Styles 5. Capsule dehiscing by 5 bidentate teeth   9 Myosoton
+ Leaves linear. Styles 4-5. Capsule splitting by 4-5 valves   10 Sagina
       
13 (11) Capsule membranous, splitting almost to the base by 2(-4) valves   4 Lepyrodiclis
+ Capsule not membranous, dehiscing by more than 2 valves or teeth   (14)
       
14 (13) Capsule dehiscing by as many valves as styles (3)   3 Minuartia
+ Capsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth or valves as styles   (15)
       
15 (14) Capsule teeth short, 6 in number   2 Arenaria
+ Capsule teeth usually ½ the capsule length, 4-6 in number   (16)
       
16 (15) Napiform tubers present on the rhizome. Cleistogamic and chasmogamic flowers present. Sepals slightly united at the base   6 Pseudostellaria
+ Tubers absent. Only chasmogamic flowers present. Sepals free   5 Stellaria
       
17 (1) Fruit a berry, indehiscent   19 Cucubalus
+ Fruit a capsule dehiscent   (18)
       
18 (17) Styles 2. Carpophore usually absent   (19)
+ Styles 3-5. Carpophore usually present   (25)
       
19 (18) Bracteoles present, adpressed to calyx   25 Dianthus
+ Bracteoles absent   (20)
       
20 (19) Calyx with 5 broad wings   23 Vaccaria
+ Calyx without wings   (21)
       
21 (20) Leaves acerose, often with a spiny apex. Bract spiny. Calyx often spiny tipped   22 Acanthophyllum
+ Leaves, bract and calyx not as above   (22)
       
22 (21) Calyx ribs with hyaline intervals between them. Capsule dehiscing by valves   (23)
+ Calyx ribs without hyaline intervals between then. Capsule dehiscing by teeth   (24)
       
23 (22) Seeds reniform to comma shaped with lateral hilum. Calyx mostly with druses   20 Gypsophila
+ Seeds peltate without facial hilum. Calyx without druses   24 Petrorhagia
       
24 (22) Calyx long, narrowly cylindrical. Stems rigid, with dichotomous branches   26 Velezia
+ Calyx campanulate or cylindrical, never long and narrow. Stems not branching as above   (25)
       
25 (24) Styles 2. Capsule dehiscing by 4 valves or teeth   21 Saponaria
+ Styles 3-5. Capsule dehiscing by teeth, 5 or twice the number of styles   (26)
       
26 (25) Styles 5. Capsule dehiscing by 10 teeth. Carpophore very reduced   17 Lychnis
+ Styles 3(-5). Capsule dehiscing by 6(-10) teeth. Carpophore prominent   18 Silene

  • List of lower taxa


     

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