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Pakistan | Family List | Primulaceae

3. Androsace L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1.142. 1753. Duby in DC., Prodr. 8:47-55.1844; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3:495-500.1882; Martelli, Riv. Monog. Androsace, 1890; Knuth in Engler, Pflanzenr. 22:172-220.1905; Handel-Mazzeti in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 15:259- 298.1927 & no. 16:161-166.1931; Schischkin & Bobrov, Fl. URSS. 18:217-241.1952; Wendelbo in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 9:27-31.1965; Smith & Lowe, Androsaces, 1-139.1977.


Androsace harrissii ssp. harrissii

Credit: S. Hameed

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, forming dense mats or not, usually glandular, rarely with stellate hairs (Androsace septentrionalis). Leaves simple, usually in basal rosettes, but sometimes cauline (Androsace lanuginosa). Petiole distinct or not. Flowers bracteate, disposed in umbels or solitary. Calyx hemispheric to more or less campanulate, 2/3 rd to ½ cleft into acute or more or less obtuse lobes. Corolla tube c. calyx size, urceolate; throat constricted, annulate or not. Stamens and style included. Capsule ovoid to globose, dehiscing longitudinally by apical teeth. Seeds angular, brown. Testa vesiculose or reticulate-vesiculose.

c. 120-125 species in the N. temperate and Artic regions, but with its maximum concentration in S.W. China and the Himalaya. Represented in Pakistan by 24 species.

Species incorrectly or doubtfully recorded

1. Androsace globifera Duby in DC., Prodr. 8:48.1844.

R.R. Stewart (Annot. Cat. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashmir. 533.1972) cites 2 specimens belonging to this taxon; Polunin 6322 from Nagar is Androsace baltistanica. Its very likely that Troll’s collection from Nanga Parbat may be the same. Smith and Lowe (1977) remark that the species Androsace globifera occurs from the Punjab Himalaya to Assam.

2. Androsace dasyphylla Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1:218.1929. (Holotype: Described from the Altai, Bunge 279 (Photo! LE).

R.R. Stewart (1972, 536.) doubtfully records the species from Alampi la, Astor (Kashmir) and from Rupshu (Ladak). The former is represented by Duthie’s Coll. no. 12167 and is Androsace muscoidea; Koelz’s gathering from Rupshu (Ladak), which I have not seen may possibly be Androsace robusta or Androsace baltistanica.

The species Androsace dasyphylla is confined to Soviet C. Asia, W. and E. Siberia. Some authors (Lamond in Davis, Fl. Turk. 6:126.1978) consider the taxon to be synonymous Androsace villose.

3. Androsace selago Klatt in Linnaea 32:292.1863.

The species has been identified with Duthie’s 12167 mentioned above. Androsace selago is mainly an east Himalayan and S. Tibetan species.

4. Androsace chamaejasmae Host, Syn. Pl. Austr. 95.1797, nom. illeg.

This is a later homonym of Wulfen’s (1787) of the same name. J.D. Hookers (1882) plants under this name are either referable to Androsace coronata or Androsace globifera.

J.D. Hooker (1882) mentions Clark’s collection from the Burji La (Baltistan) and the Karakorams. Clarke’s 30366 (BM!) from the Karakorams is Androsace baltistanica, which also occurs on the Burji La (Schmid no. 710, G!). According to Handel-Mazzetti (1927) the true Androsace chamaejasmae is confined to the mountains of Europe.

1 Plants annual   (2)
+ Plants perennial or biennial   (3)
2 (1) Leaves cordate-reniform to suborbicular, distinctly petioled. Hairs simple. Calyx stellate in fruit. Plants of the lowlands, pot ascending to more than 1800 m   1 Androsace umbellata
+ Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, petiole indistinct. Hairs simple and furcate, calyx not stellate in fruit. Plants of high dry areas from 3000-5400 m   24 Androsace septentrionalis
3 (1) Plants biennial. Leaves spathulate, 15-44 mm long, cartilaginous, margin ciliolate, pale yellowish-white (at least in the dry state). Hairs occasionally proliferate   4 Androsace aizoon
+ Plants perennial. Leaves if as above, smaller (5-15 mm) and margin not pale yellowish-white. Hairs simple   (4)
4 (3) Leaves with a petiole 2-2½ times the lamina length; lamina reniform-cordate to orbicular-cordate   (5)
+ Leaves with petiole not exceeding the lamina length. Lamina lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, more or less spathulate or suboricular   (6)
5 (4) Lamina 4.5-12.5 x 7-20 mm, membranous, margin sharply toothed. Pedicel length 6-8 mm, calyx length 3-5 mm   3 Androsace thomsonii
+ Lamina (6-) 12.4-26 x 20-42 mm, margin crenate-dentate. Pedicel length 5-40 mm, calyx length 5-12 mm   2 Androsace rotundifolia
6 (4) Flowers yellow   7 Androsace flavescens
+ Flowers white to pink, pink-mauve or lilac   (7)
7 (6) Leaves glabrous to sparse pubescent. Margin setose-ciliate   (8)
+ Leaves pubescent to villous. Margin not strongly setose-ciliate   (12)
8 (7) Leaves farinose. Scape 14-34 cm long, sometimes less. Seeds 2-8 per capsule   (9)
+ Leaves efarinose. Scape up to 7 cm long. Seeds 1-2 per capsule   (11)
9 (8) Leaves densely imbricate, columnar on the caudices, cartilaginous, 2.5-14 x 0.5-4.0 mm, margin ciliate only at the base. Estoloniferous   23 Androsace harrissii
+ Leaves in loose to dense rosettes, not artilaginous, 15-57 x 3-5.5 mm, margin ciliate or setose-ciliate. Stoloniferous   (10)
10 (9) Leaves elliptic, 8-20 mm long. Scape 2.5-11.5 cm long, 3-8-flowered. Bracts 3-9.5 mm long   19 Androsace himalaica
+ Leaves linear-lanceolate, 12-57 mm long. Scape 7.5-28 cm long, 10-22-flowered. Bracts 6-11 mm long   20 Androsace hazarica
11 (8) Stolons slender, 1 per node and up to 20 mm long. Leaves 3-8 x 1.5-3 mm. Scape slender, 2-12(-18) mm long, (1-) 2-6-flowered   21 Androsace mucronifolia
+ Stolons ± stout, 3-6 per node and (1-) 30-80 mm long. Leaves 5-15 x 3-6.5 mm. Scape ± stout, 12-68 mm long, 4-15-flowered   22 Androsace sempervivoides
12 (7) Corolla exannulate or with a feebly developed annulus. Seeds from 1-6 per capsule   (13)
+ Corolla annulate, often prominently so. Seeds 1-2 per capsule   (16)
13 (12) Stolons c. 1 mm thick. Leaves isomorphic, in rosettes 7-15 (-17) mm broad. Scape slender, 20-80 mm long, (2-) 4-10-flowered. Pedicel 2½-3 times the length of the bract   9 Androsace duthieana
+ Stolons 1.5-3 mm thick. Leaves dimorphic, rosettes (if present) 5-30 mm broad. Scape stout, (2-) 4.5-22.5 cm long, 15-55 -flowered. Pedicel usually 1½-2 times the length of the bract   (14)
14 (13) Stolons leafy. Leaves dense appressed silky villous   8 Androsace lanuginosa
+ Stolons naked. Leaves villous, rarely silky-villous   (15)
15 (14) Stolons 2-3 mm thick. Leaves ± loosely arranged, inner ones elliptic-cuneate or elliptic-ovate, 2-11.5 x 1.1-3.4 cm. Scape 5.5-22.5 cm long, (7-) 20-55-flowered   5 Androsace foliosa
+ Stolons 1.5 mm thick. Leaves ± compactly arranged, inner ones elliptic-lanceolate, 2-6.8 x 0.4-1.2 cm. Scape 4.5-15 cm long, 15-22-flowered   6 Androsace studiosorum
16 (12) Apex and upper half (lower surface) of leaf strigose, the hairs from 0.18-0.50 mm long, 2-3-septate   18 Androsace akbaitalensis
+ Leaf surface sparse to densely pubescent-villous, especially on the lower surface; the hairs 0.25-1.9 mm long, 3-5-septate, rarely less   (17)
17 (16) Plants very compact, the leaf caudices 11-25 mm long, and appressed close together. Scape obsolete, 1-flowered   17 Androsace russellii
+ Plants usually of a loose and dichotomous habit, the leaf caudices exceeding 25 mm in length. Leaves in ± loose to subglobose rosettes at intervals of up to 15 mm apart. Scape usually well developed, 1-12-flowered   (18)
18 (17) Leaf rosettes 3-6 mm broad, globose. Leaves ± incurved, 2.1-4.5 x 1.1-1.5 mm. Scape up to 8 mm long, 1-2-flowered   16 Androsace muscoidea
+ Leaf rosettes loose or if globose then 4-14 mm broad. Leaves not incurved, 3-11 x 1-2.8 mm. Scape (5-) 7-90 mm long, 3-12-flowered   (19)
19 (18) Plants robust. Leaves densely appressed villous, cinerascent green or silky white   (20)
+ Plants of a ± slender habit. Leaves sub-glabrous to pubescent-villous, but not densely so   (21)
20 (19) Rhizome woody, c. 4.5 mm thick. Scape up to 10 mm long. Seed with a prominent hilum scar   11 Androsace villosissima
+ Rhizome and seed not as above. Scape 40-95 mm   10 Androsace robusta
21 (19) Leaves in subglobose rosettes, sparsely hairy on the upper surface, contrasting with the densely white-villous inflorescence   15 Androsace staintonii
+ Leaves in loose rosettes, villous or sparsely so, but not contrasting with the inflorescence   (22)
22 (21) Plants usually villous. Indument of white to pale rusty hairs. Scape 1-3-flowered. Leaves faintly carinate, obtusish   14 Androsace baltistanica
+ Plants sparsely villous. Indument of white hairs only. Scape 3-9-flowered. Leaves carinate, acute   (23)
23 (22) Compact plants. Tips of leaves, calyx and bracts purplish tinged. Calyx lobes obtuse. Corolla lobes retuse   12 Androsace ojhorensis
+ Loose slender plants. Tips of leaves, scape and bracts not purplish tinged. Calyx lobes subacute. Corolla lobes entire to wavy   13 Androsace lowariensis

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