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Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi

Arabis nova

Credit: Azmat

Annual to perennial herbs, rarely woody or shrubby. Leaves alternate or spirally arranged, generally simple and exstipulate, basal often rosulate. Hairs usually simple or branched, sometimes appressed or absent.Inflorescence usually racemose, corymbose. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, hypogynous, actinomorphic, pedicellate and ebracteate. Sepals 4, erect-closed to spreading-open, in two decussate pairs, inner sometimes saccate at the base. Petals 4 (very rarely suppressed), alternating with sepals, free, often with distinct claw, usually yellow, white or lilac, cruciform. Stamens 6 (rarely 4, 2 or even 1 due to suppression, very rarely more than 6), tetradynamous, outer pair short and inner 4 long; filaments some-times winged, toothed or appendaged; anthers dithecous (very rarely monothecous) and fertile. Lateral nectar glands (at the base of the two outer short stamens) almost always present and of various shapes; middle glands present or absent. Ovary bicarpellate, syncarpous, 1-2-celled or with 2-many superimposed cells, 1-many ovuled on two parietal placentas; septum false being formed by the placental outgrowths; style simple, sometimes absent; stigma often capitate, entire to bilobed. Fruit short (silicula) or long (siliqua), dehiscent or indehiscent, usually opening from below by 2 valves which often leave the seeds attached to replum and the false septum, sometimes breaking transversely into 1-few seeded cells, rarely seeds also developing in an indehiscent beak below the style or stigma; valves membranous to coriaceous and thick, plane or inflated, sometimes keeled, winged or appendaged, glabrous or hairy, with 1-many parallel veins (generally rnidvein prominent). Seeds 1-many in 1-2 rows, smooth, granular or reticulated, rarely longitudinally striated, sometimes winged, usually mucilaginous when wet, exalbuminous; radicle accumbent (when it is bent round so as to lie along the edges of the cotyledons i.e. embryo pleurorhizus) or incumbent (when it lies on the face of one cotyledon i.e. embryo notorhizus) ; cotyledons narrowly linear to spathulate, sessile or stalked, rarely plicate or conduplicate (longitudinally folded).

A large family of about 350 genera and nearly 3000 species, primarily of the temperate regions and cooler climates. Of these only 92 genera and about 250 species are reported from our area, which includes 5 genera and 14 species known from cultivation only. It is well known for its oil producing seeds.

Taxonomy of this family is primarily based on fruit characters, hence the lack of fruits in herbarium specimens sometimes makes correct identification difficult. O.E. Schulz in Engler, Pflanzenreich, Cruciferae-Brassiceae 70 (IV. 105) :1-290 ;1919) and 84 (IV. 105) :1-100 (1923) ; Cruciferae-Sisymbrieae, 86 (IV, 105) : 1-388 (1924) ; Draba et Erophila 89 (IV. 105) : 1-396 (1927) revised monographically parts of the family, and in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf., ed. 2, 17 b: 227-658 (1936) revised the entire family. Although this work is the only thorough and comprehensive one for the whole family, a revaluation of tribes and subtribes and above all generic concepts, in certain cases, is much needed. Distinction of beak or biarticulation of fruits sometimes become only theoretical and practically indistinguishable; hairy plants sometimes become glabrous or almost glabrous. Efforts are being made to produce groupings or really workable practical keys for the separation of genera, irrespective of their places in the various tribes (P.H. Davis, Fl. Turkey 1: 249-262, 1965; Rechinger f., Fl. Iranica 57: 3-30, 1968). However, the following account of the family, from West Pakistan, is based broadly on the treatment given by O.E. Schulz in the above mentioned publications.

It is difficult to reach and identify a genus following the key for the tribes, therefore a separate key for all the genera, irrespective of their tribes (adapted and modified from K.H. Rechinger, Fl. Iran. 57: 3-30. 1968) is provided separately. Alternate keys for the genera under their tribes are also provided.

Five Tables are provided to show the fruit characters of almost all the taxa included here under various tribes. This should help in following the generic and specific keys.

Stamen length is given in the proportion of short and long stamens (i.e. length of the 2 outer stamens: length of the 4 inner stamens).

Of the 19 tribes recognized by O.E. Schulz (in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzen f. ed. 2, 17b: 227-658.1936) only 10 are represented in our area.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480. Thanks are also due to Dr. P.H. Davis, Mr. B.L. Burtt, Mr. I.C. Hedge, Dr. P. Botschantzev, Dr. G. Taylor, Dr. K.H. Rechinger, Dr. R.R. Stewart, Dr. S.I. Ali, Prof. E. Nasir, Dr. Kazmi and Dr. Rafique Ahmed for their every possible help.

Key to the Genera

1 Plants glabrous   (2)
+ Plants pilose or hairy   (47)
2 (1) Fruits less than 3 times as long as broad (siliqua)   (3)
+ Fruits 4 times or more as long as broad (siliqua)   (25)
3 (2) Fruits strongly compressed, flat   (4)
+ Fruits not or scarcely compressed, ovoid inflated or with crested valves   (17)
4 (3) Silicula biarticulated (jointed), lower portion narrow, stalk-l ike, dehiscent, upper portion much larger, broadly winged indehiscent, stigma lobes conical, decurrent   Fortuynia
+ Silicula not jointed, winged or not winged, stigma lobes short, neither conical nor decurrent   (5)
5 (4) Silicula compressed parallel to septum (or locule), not winged   (6)
+ Silicula compressed at right angles to septum (or locule), usually winged   (8)
6 (5) Septum complete, siliculae broadly elliptic, oblong, stipitate, seeds winged   (7)
+ Septum incomplete or lacking, siliculae elliptic, not stipitate, seeds not winged   Graellsia
7 (6) Leaves fleshy, lower subsessile or very shortly petioled, oblong-cuneate to elliptic, siliculae same, flowers small   Savignya
+ Leaves ovate-cordate, lower long petioled, siliculae large, flowers large, (cultivated)   Lunaria
8 (5) Fruits pendulous   (9)
+ Fruits not pendulous (rarely slightly pendulous in Thlaspi)   (10)
9 (8) Stigma sessile or style absent fruits usually oblong and narrowly winged (rarely suborbicular)   Isatis
+ Style very short but distinct, fruits ± orbicular and broadly winged   Sameraria
10 (8) Seeds 1-2 only   (11)
+ Seeds 4- many   (15)
11 (10) Leaves bi-pinnatisect with narrow lobes   (12)
+ Leaves entire to 1-pinnatisect with broader lobes   (13)
12 (11) Fruits c.2 mm in diam. with verrucose and inflated valves, separating into two 1-seeded parts   Coronopus
+ Fruits c.10 mm in diam. with membranous, compressed smooth valves, dehiscent   Uranodactylus
13 (11) Siliculae broadly winged, sometimes dimorphic (the dehiscent usually 2-4(-6) seeded and indehiscent (abnormal) ones 1-seeded)   Aethionema
+ Siliculae not winged, always alike   (14)
14 (13) Siliculae not so compressed, valves boat-shaped, septum somewhat broad, leaves usually 1-pinnatisect   Winklera
+ Siliculae strongly compressed, valves keeled, septum very narrow, leaves usually simple   Lepidium
15 (10) Heterocarpous with condensed infructescence, siliculae c. 4-seeded, winged (abnormal ones 1-seeded)   Aethionema
+ Homocarpous with usually elongated infructescence, siliculae more than 4-seeded   (16)
16 (15) Siliculae usually ± winged, very compressed (rarely wings suppressed or lacking), cauline leaves sessile, usually auricled at base   Thlaspi
+ Siliculae neither so compressed (valves boat shaped), nor winged, very small, cauline leaves cuneate below   Hymenolobus
17 (3) Fruit vesicular or inflated (c.7 mm in diam.)   Didymophysa
+ Fruit not vesicular   (18)
18 (17) Silicula valves 2-crested   Dilophia
+ Silicula without crested valves   (19)
19 (18) Basal leaves petioled, large, lamina ± cordate at base   Crambe
+ Basal leaves neither petioled nor cordate   (20)
20 (19) Fruiting pedicels deflexed or recurved   (21)
+ Fruiting pedicels erect, ascending or spreading, straight   (22)
21 (20) Petals yellow. Leaves entire. Fruit cymbiform (with inflated locule and narrow flattened apex)   Tauscheria
+ Petals violet or purplish. Leaves dentate. Fruit oblong, tetragonous with angular apex, often constricted in the middle   Goldbachia
22 (20) Fruits many seeded   (23)
+ Fruits 1-2- seeded   (24)
23 (22) Flowers yellow, plants aquatic or amphibious   Rorippa
+ Flowers white (rarely yellowish or lilac), plants terrestrial   Cochlearia
24 (22) Annual. Flowers yellow, fruits not jointed tetragonous, narrowly winged, 1-seeded   Boreava
+ Perennial. Flowers white, pinkish or pale yellowish, fruit jointed, globose, shortly beaked, smooth, 1-2-seeded   Physorrhynchus
25 (2) Fruit biarticulated, beaked or with a short, beak-l ike stylar apex   (26)
+ Fruit neither jointed nor beaked   (34)
26 (25) Stigma lobes conical and decurrent   (27)
+ Stigma lobes short, capitate (rarely slightly conical), not decurrent   (30)
27 (26) Petals yellow, plants annual   Conringia
+ Petals pink or lilac, plants perennial   (28)
28 (27) Plants ± scaposa (without cauline leaves)   Parrya
+ Plants with leafy flowering stems   (29)
29 (28) Cauline leaves amplexicaul, petals obovate   Moricandia
+ Cauline leaves narrowed below, not amplexicaul, petals linear   Douepia
30 (26) Fruits dehiscent with ± membranous valves   (31)
+ Fruits indehiscent, lomentoid with thickened valves   (33)
31 (30) Scapes 1-flowered, leaves linear, plants small, caespitose   Pycnoplinthus
+ Racemes many flowered, leaves not linear, plants tall   (32)
32 (31) Seeds biseriate, flowers violet or pinkish-white, (fruit beak short)   Diplotaxis
+ Seeds uniseriate, flowers yellow, (fruit beak usually long, sometimes short)   Brassica
33 (30) Leaves entire or dentate, petals yellow, fruits spindle-shaped, often spirally curved with a long beak   Spirorrhynchus
+ Leaves pinnatisect, fruit small, torulose with a very short beak   Erucaria
34 (25) Fruit 1-locular, ± winged or with thickened margins, pendulous   Isatis
+ Fruit 2-locular, compressed parallel to septum, not winged, rarely pendulous   (35)
35 (34) Lower or basal leaves simple, entire or dentate   (36)
+ Lower or basal leaves pinnate or pinnatifid   (44)
36 (35) Rootstock thickened, somewhat woody, basal leaves obovate, much larger than the cauline leaves, fruits short and broad, ± curved with sessile stigma   Arcyosperma
+ Annual or perennial but rootstock not so thickened, cauline leaves not so small, fruits generally long, linear with ± conspicuous style   (37)
37 (36) Cauline leaves absent or amplexicaul   (38)
+ Cauline leaves always present, usually not amplexicaul, sessile or shortly petioled   (40)
38 (37) Cauline leaves absent, stigma with conical and decurrent lobes   Parrya
+ Cauline leaves amplexicaul, stigma short, capitate or bilobed, not decurrent   (39)
39 (38) Cauline leaves many, fruiting pedicel thin (sometimes deflexed)   Turritis
+ Cauline leaves few, distant, fruiting pedicels often thickened, ascending or spreading   Arabis
40 (37) Petals small, stigma short depressed, plants usually annuals   Arabidopsis
+ Petals prominent, stigma bilobed, plants usually perennials   (41)
41 (40) Leaves spathulate, generally 3-5-dentate above, septum complete, incomplete or absent   Christolea
+ Leaves elliptic, entire to dentate, septum complete   (42)
42 (41) Seeds biseriate, fruit flat, shortly stipitate   Diplotaxis
+ seeds uniseriate, fruits with ± convex valves, not stipitate   (43)
43 (42) Petals 5-15 mm long, stigma capitate   Sisymbrium
+ Petals 20-30 mm long, stigma bilobed   Hesperis
44 (35) Leaf segments filiform, flowers distant, solitary or few   Leptaleum
+ Leaf segments not filiform, flowers in racemes   (45)
45 (44) Leaves 2-3-pinnatisect with narrow, short lobes, fruit often curved, not opening form below   Descurainia
+ Leaves simply pinnate (to entire-denticulate)   (46)
46 (45) Fruits straight, opening form below upwards, seeds 1-seriate   Cardamine
+ Fruits ± curved, opening uniformly, seeds ± 2-seriate   Nasturtium
47 (1) Hairs simple   (48)
+ Hairs branched or stellate, sometimes glandular and intermixed   (95)
48 (47) Fruits generally less than 3 times as long as broad   (49)
+ Fruits 4 times or more as long as broad   (72)
49 (48) Fruit compressed (very rarely not compressed but winged or didymous)   (50)
+ Fruit not compressed, neither winged nor didymous   (60)
50 (49) Petals yellow (or sometimes white with violet veins)   (51)
+ Petals pink or white or absent   (54)
51 (50) Fruit erect and dehiscent   Draba
+ Fruit pendulous and indehiscent or breaking away into two 1-seeded halves   (52)
52 (51) Plants very tall with large pinnate leaves, fruits large 2-locular, breaking into two 1-seeded halves   Megacarpaea
+ Plants small with simple leaves, fruit small, indehiscent, 1-locular   (53)
53 (52) Stigma sessile or subsessile   Isatis
+ Stigma on distinct but very short style   Sameraria
54 (50) Racemes axillary, fruit valves thickened, verrucose   Coronopus
+ Racemes terminal, fruit valves membranous   (55)
55 (54) Fruit compressed parallel to septum   (56)
+ Fruit slightly to very compressed contrary to septum   (57)
56 (55) Cauline leaves present, seeds winged   Savignya
+ Cauline leaves absent, seeds not winged   Erophila
57 (55) Fruits not very compressed , valves boat-shaped, septum not very narrow   Winklera
+ Fruits very compressed, septum very narrow   (58)
58 (57) Fruits ± winged, (cultivated)   Iberis
+ Fruits not winged or slightly winged above, valves keeled   (59)
59 (58) Fruits c. 10 mm in diam., not winged, style long, (leaves 2-pinnatisect)   Uranodactylus
+ Fruits small, slightly or not winged at the apex, less than 8 mm in diam., style very short, (cauline leaves generally entire or dentate)   Lepidium
60 (49) Basal leaves long-petioled, fruit, jointed   Crambe
+ Basal leaves not so, fruit not jointed   (61)
61 (60) Fruit valves dehiscent   (62)
+ Fruit indehiscent   (66)
62 (61) Plants perennial, often with somewhat thick rootstock   (63)
+ Plants annual or biennial   (64)
63 (62) Inflorescence ± capitate, cauline leaves 0-1, narrow   Braya
+ Inflorescence ± lax, cauline leaves several, spathulate   Aphragmus
64 (62) Leaves small, obovate, usually 3-dentate above to entire   Lignariella
+ Leaves not so small, uniformly dentate to incised   (65)
65 (64) Petals 6-7 mm long, yellowish-white, cauline leaves cordate and amplexicaul   Camelina
+ Petals 1-3(-5) mm long, yellow, cauline leaves pinnatisect to entire, narrowed below, rarely slightly amplexicaul   Rorippa
66 (61) Fruit biarticulated   (67)
+ Fruit not biarticulated   (68)
67 (66) Fruit globose, smooth, stigma sessile, depressed   Crambe
+ Fruit globose, striated, apex shortly beaked   Rapistrum
68 (66) Petals yellow, fruit cymbiform   Tauscheria
+ Petals white or pinkish, fruit not cymbiform   (69)
69 (68) Scapes 1-flowered, aerial stem 0   Pegaeophyton
+ Aerial stem many flowered   (70)
70 (69) Fruiting pedicel very short (c. 1.5 mm Long), appressed to the axis   Euclidium
+ Fruiting pedicel neither so short nor appressed   (71)
71 (70) Petals white, pedicel ascending, silicula ovate to orbicular   Cardaria
+ Petals pink, pedicel recurved or deflexed, fruits tetragonous   Goldbachia
72 (48) Fruits beaked or biarticulated   (73)
+ Fruits neither beaked nor biarticulated   (83)
73 (72) Fruiting pedicel appressed to the axis   (74)
+ Fruiting pedicel not appressed   (75)
74 (73) Petals pink or lilac, leaf segments ± linear, pods shortly beaked   Erucaria
+ Petals yellow or white, leaf segments angular, pods with a prominent beak, ± flat, angular   Sinapis
75 (73) Stigma lobes conical and decurrent   (76)
+ Stigma lobes short, capitate or depressed, not decurrent   (79)
76 (75) Fruits indehiscent and lomentoid   Chorispora
+ All fruits or at least the upper ones dehiscent (lower sometimes indehiscent )   (77)
77 (76) Petals yellowish with dark veins, fruits short with a prominent broad beak   Eruca
+ Petals white, violet or lilac, not so veined, fruits long, beak short, slender   (78)
78 (77) Plants annual and leafy, fruits generally dimorphic, upper smooth, dehiscent, lower usually indehiscent and lomentoid   Diptychocarpus
+ Plants perennial, scapose, fruits dehiscent   Parrya
79 (75) Fruits breaking transversely into segments   (80)
+ Fruits dehiscent by valves   (81)
80 (79) Fruits shortly beaked, lower portion 1-3-seeded   Enarthrocarpus
+ Fruit beak elongated, lower portion of fruit sterile   Raphanus
81 (79) Seeds biseriate, very small (less than 1 mm in diam.), beak very short   Diplotaxis
+ Seeds uniseriate, no so small (1 or more then 1 mm in diam.), beak often prominent   (82)
82 (81) Fruit valves 1-veined, beak not so flattened, tapering (rarely beak indistinct)   Brassica
+ Fruit valves 3-7-veined, beak flattened, angular   Sinapis
83 (72) Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatisect   (84)
+ Leaves simple, entire or dentate   (89)
84 (83) Leaves 1-3-pinnatisect   Descurainia
+ Leaves pinnatifid or simply pinnate   (85)
85 (84) Petals yellow   (86)
+ Petals white or pink   (88)
86 (85) Fruit pendulous, 1-celled, ± winged   Isatis
+ Fruit erect or spreading, 2-celled, not winged   (87)
87 (86) Cauline leaves amplexicaul   Barbaraea
+ Cauline leaves not amplexicaul   Sisymbrium
88 (85) Fruiting pedicel ± thickened, fruit subcylindrical, torulose, often curved or coiled at the apex   Torularia
+ Fruiting pedicel not thickened, fruit ± flat, smooth and straight   Cardamine
89 (83) Lower leaves long-petioled, cordate,(petals white)   Alliaria
+ Lower leaves neither long-petioled nor cordate, (petals yellow, white or pink)   (90)
90 (89) Fruit ± winged, pendulous   Isatis
+ Fruit neither winged nor pendulous   (91)
91 (90) Plants ascending-prostrate, short or depressed   (92)
+ Plants erect and often tall   (93)
92 (91) Basal leaves much larger than the few Cauline leaves, flowering stem hardly exceeding the basal leaves, stigma capitate   Arcyosperma
+ Leaves uniformly present and basal not so large, flowering stem exceeding the basal leaves, stigma bilobed   Christolea
93 (91) Cauline leaves amplexicaul   Barbaraea
+ Cauline leaves sessile or short-petioled   (94)
94 (93) Fruits generally beaked and biarticulated,cotyledons longitudinally folded   Brassica
+ Fruits neither beaked nor biarticulated, cotyledons not folded   Sisymbrium
95 (47) Fruit a silicula   (96)
+ Fruit a siliqua   (119)
96 (95) Leaves pinnatisect, flowers usually solitary axillary or racemes bracteate   Hedinia
+ Leaves simple, entire or dentate, flowers usually in ebracteate racemes   (97)
97 (96) Fruit ± inflated with membranous valves, never horny   (98)
+ Fruit ± terete, not inflated, valves somewhat thickened, often horny or with appendages   (100)
98 (97) Hairs stellate or branched, appressed   (99)
+ Hairs branched (or mixed with simple), not appressed   Draba
99 (98) Fruit orbicular or suborbicular, usually with ± flattened very narrow margins   Alyssum
+ Fruit ovoid or suborbicular, without a flattened margin   Ptilotrichum
100 (97) Fruiting pedicel appressed to axis, fruits usually indehiscent, often horned or spiny   (101)
+ Fruiting pedicel not appressed, erect to spreading or reflexed, fruits usually dehiscent, neither horned nor spiny   (105)
101 (100) Fruit apex 2-several horned or irregularly spiny   (102)
+ Fruit apex not horned but auricled or simply beaked   (104)
102 (101) Fruit ± ovoid and irregularly spiny   Octoceras
+ Fruit ± oblong and horned at the apex only   (103)
103 (102) Fruit 2-horned   Notoceras
+ Fruit 4-horned   Tetracme
104 (101) Fruit apex transversely auricled   Anastatica
+ Fruit apex not auricled, simply beaked   Euclidium
105 (100) Fruit obtriangular, strongly compressed at right angles to the septum   Capsella
+ Fruit elliptic, orbicular or obovate, flattened parallel to the septum or not flattened   (106)
106 (105) Fruiting pedicel deflexed   (107)
+ Fruiting pedicel erect to spreading   (108)
107 (106) Flowers solitary axillary, siliculae dehiscent, distant   Buchingera
+ Flowers in racemes, ebracteate, siliculae indehiscent, crowded   Clypeola
108 (106) Cauline leaves sagittate, amplexicaul   (109)
+ Cauline leaves cuneate, sessile or petioled   (110)
109 (108) Siliculae indehiscent, globose   Neslia
+ Siliculae dehiscent, elliptic or obovoid   Camelina
110 (108) Plants annual   (111)
+ Plants perennial   (114)
111 (110) Plants small, ± procumbent, leaves usually pinnatifid   Hymenolobus
+ Plants erect, leaves or dentate   (112)
112 (111) Petals deeply bifid or absent   Erophila
+ Petals entire, retuse or emarginate   (113)
113 (112) Hairs appressed, generally stellate   Alyssum
+ Hairs not appressed, branched or simple   Draba
114 (110) Leaves pinnatisect   Smelowskia
+ Leaves simple, entire or dentate   (115)
115 (114) Stigma lobes comical and decurrent   Farsetia
+ Stigma lobes short and capitate, not decurrent   (116)
116 (115) Siliculae ± orbicular   (117)
+ Siliculae elliptic or oblong   (118)
117 (116) Hairs bipartite-appressed, (cultivated)   Lobularia
+ Hairs stellate-appressed   Alyssum
118 (116) Flowers yellow, radicle accumbent   Draba
+ Flowers white or pink, radicle incumbent   Braya
119 (95) Plants perennial   (120)
+ Plants annual or biennial   (132)
120 (119) Lower leaves pinnate or pinnatifid   (121)
+ Lower leaves entire or dentate   (123)
121 (120) Petals white or pink, 3-8 mm long   (122)
+ Petals dull or brownish, longer than 10 mm   Matthiola
122 (121) Siliquae valves 1-veined, stamen filaments not dentate   Arabidopsis
+ Siliquae valves 3-veined, stamen filaments often dentate (edentate in our species)   Dontostemon
123 (120) Stigma lobes conical and decurrent   (124)
+ Stigma lobes short and capitate, not decurrent   (127)
124 (123) Hairs bifid, appressed   Farsetia
+ Hairs stalked, branched or stellate   (125)
125 (124) Siliquae quadrangular, 2-horned near the apex   Diceratella
+ Siliquae ± compressed or terete, not horned near the apex (sometimes stigma lobes appendaged in Matthiola)   (126)
126 (125) Fruits ± flat, seeds winged   Matthiola
+ Fruits subcylindrical or terete, seeds not winged   Hesperis
127 (123) Hairs appressed (bifid to stellate)   (128)
+ Hairs stalked, not appressed (branched or stellate)   (129)
128 (127) Middle nectar glands present   Erysimum
+ Middle nectar glands absent, (cultivated)   Cheiranthus
129 (127) Plants not caespitose, stem leafy   Arabidopsis
+ Plants caespitose, usually scapose   (130)
130 (129) Petals dull whitish or dull yellow, turning purple   Phaeonychium
+ Petals white or pink   (131)
131 (130) Seeds biseriate   Draba
+ Seeds uniseriate   Arabis
132 (119) Leaves pinnatifid or pinnate   (133)
+ Leaves entire or dentate   (143)
133 (132) Fruiting pedicel thickened   (134)
+ Fruiting pedicel not thickened   (140)
134 (133) Stigma lobes conical and decurrent   (135)
+ Stigma lobes short and capitate, not decurrent   (137)
135 (134) Leaf segments filiform, flowers few or solitary, distant   Leptaleum
+ Leaf segments not filiform, flowers in racemes, many   (136)
136 (135) Petals white, pink or violet   Malcolmia
+ Petals dull, brownish   Matthiola
137 (134) Fruits with 4 apical horns   Tetracme
+ Fruits without horns   (138)
138 (137) Leaves 2-pinnatisect   Robeschia
+ Leaves pinnatifid   (139)
139 (138) Petals white or pink, stalked   Torularia
+ Petals yellow, hairs appressed   Erysimum
140 (133) Petals white or pink   (141)
+ Petals yellow   (142)
141 (140) Plants usually small, up to 10 cm long, siliquae 10-25 mm long   Microsisymbrium
+ Plants usually tall, up to 40 cm long, siliquae usually 30-75 mm long   Arabidopsis
142 (140) Sepals narrow, linear, fruits 2 cm or more long   Descurainia
+ Sepals broad, oblong, fruits up to 1 cm long   Sophiopsis
143 (132) Hairs partite and appressed   (144)
+ Hairs stalked, branched or stellate   (146)
144 (143) Fruiting pedicel thickened   Erysimum
+ Fruiting pedicel not thickened   (145)
145 (144) Plants tall and leafy, stigma lobes conical and decurrent   Farsetia
+ Plants short, few-leaved, stigma capitate, not decurrent   Atelanthera
146 (143) Stigma lobes conical and decurrent   (147)
+ Stigma lobes capitate, not decurrent   (150)
147 (146) Fruits indehiscent, lomentoid, inner Stamen filaments often connate   Sterigmostemum
+ Fruits dehiscent, stamen filaments free   (148)
148 (147) Stigma lobes laterally appendaged, petals dull, brownish   Matthiola
+ Stigma lobes not appendaged, petals lilac, pink or white   (149)
149 (148) Leaves oblong or ovate-lanceolate, entire or dentate, often petiolate, fruiting pedicel thickened   Malcolmia
+ Leaves linear-oblong, entire, sessile, fruiting pedicel not thickened   Eremobium
150 (146) Fruiting pedicel about as the fruit   (151)
+ Fruiting pedicel not thickened, narrower than the fruit   (154)
151 (150) Petals pale yellow or yellow   (152)
+ Petals pink or white   (153)
152 (151) Scapose herbs, often small   Drabopsis
+ Leafy herbs, often tall   Erysimum
153 (151) Plants ascending or procumbent, cauline leaves sessile radicle incumbent   Torularia
+ Plants ± erect, cauline leaves often amplexicaul, radicle accumbent   Arabis
154 (150) Siliquae somewhat broad and flat, c.5 mm broad, seeds few, 4-5 mm in diam, winged   Cithareloma
+ Siliquae narrow, 1-3 mm broad, not so flat, seeds many, not or hardly winged   (155)
155 (154) Seeds biseriate   (156)
+ Seeds uniseriate   (157)
156 (155) Cauline leaves amplexicaul, plants glaucous, slightly hairy, usually 50-100 cm tall, siliquae 50-90 mm long   Turritis
+ Cauline leaves absent or sessile, plants short, up to 20 cm tall, green ± hirsute, siliquae up to 15 mm long   Draba
157 (155) Cauline leaves often amplexicaul, auricled at base, petals white, radicle accumbent   Arabis
+ Cauline leaves sessile or shortly petioled (very rarely amplexicaul), petals yellow, radicle incumbent   Arabidopsis

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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