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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Balsaminaceae

1. Impatiens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 937. 1753.

凤仙花属 feng xian hua shu

Impatiens delavayi

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Balsamina Miller.

Morphological characters are the same as those of the family, except: lateral petals always united in pairs into lateral, united petals; fruit a fleshy, explosive capsule; seeds often dispersed elastically from valves when ripe.

More than 900 species: tropical and subtropical mountains of the E hemisphere, some species in temperate Asia, Europe, and North America; 227 species (187 endemic, two introduced) in China; three additional species (all endemic) of uncertain placement.

Impatiens balsamina (species no. 2) is widely cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant. Recently, I. walleriana J. D. Hooker (species no. 4) has become commonly cultivated, and I. usambarensis Grey-Wilson, native to Tanzania, has been introduced.

Taxonomically, Impatiens is a very difficult group. The stem is usually fleshy and succulent, making collected specimens difficult to dry and conserve. The texture of the sepals and petals is very delicate, extremely thin and hyaline. In dried specimens, all of the flower parts are often plicate and coalesced. Although it is difficult to separate and reconstruct the flower parts, determining the shapes and sizes of the sepals and petals, and apices of the anthers (i.e., obtuse or acute), is necessary for identification. To identify and describe every species exactly, we removed flowers from specimens, immersed them in water, and dissected them under a microscope to observe their flower and anther characters clearly. This process is not only time-consuming but also uncertain of success.

The following species were described from China but could not be treated here because no material was seen by the authors: Impatiens huangyanensis X. F. Jin & B. Y. Ding (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 40: 167. 2002), described from Zhejiang; also the following species all described from Yunnan: I. armeniaca S. H. Huang (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 25: 271. 2003), I. austroyunnanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 276), I. daguanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 273), I. deqinensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 263), I. lancisepala S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 277), I. laojunshanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 268), I. latipetala S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 278), I. longirostris S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 261), I. malipoensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 269), I. multiramea S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 280), I. pianmaensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 267), I. salwinensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 263), I. suijiangensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 274), I. sunii S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 273), I. wenshanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 267), I. xishuangbannaensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 271. 2003 ["bannaensis," corrected by S. H. Huang et al., Acta Bot. Yunnan. 26: 574. 2004]), I. yongshanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 274), I. yui S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 266), and I. zixishanensis S. H. Huang (loc. cit.: 276).

 

Species incertae sedis

The following species with united lateral petals are difficult to place taxonomically because either the protologues are too brief or we have not seen the relevant specimens.

Impatiens dichroocarpa H. Léveillé, Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 120. 1916.
色果凤仙花 se guo feng xian hua

Plants annual, small, glabrous. Stem erect; branchlets often curved. Leaves alternate; leaf blade gray-green, small, margin aristate-serrate. Inflorescences many flowered. Flowers very small, ca. 5 mm. Lateral sepals linear. Capsule yellow, ca. 2.1 mm.

● Streamsides; ca. 2700 m. Yunnan (Tongchuan).

Impatiens mairei H. Léveillé, Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 122. 1916.
岔河凤仙花 cha he feng xian hua

Plants annual, conspicuously hairy. Leaves crowded in upper part of stem; leaf blade 3–6 cm, margin aristate-serrate. Pedicels glandular. Flowers pink. Lateral sepals brown, lateral veins conspicuous, milky-white, margin yellow-brown.

● Meadows; 2600–2700 m. Yunnan (Tongchuan). This species is hairy except for the flowers. It is related to Impatiens lasiophyton.

Impatiens vaniotiana H. Léveillé, Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 122. 1916.
巧家凤仙花 qiao jia feng xian hua

Plants annual, glabrous. Stem erect, branched. Leaves alternate, petiolate, upper leaves sessile; leaf blade 8–10 × 3–4 cm, at least coarsely crenate on terminal margin, aristate. Flowers yellow, large. Lateral sepals conspicuously cuspidate.

● Streamsides on mountains; ca. 3200 m. Yunnan (Qiaojia).

This species is related to Impatiens mairei but differs in that the plant is glabrous with yellow flowers.


1 Capsule short, ellipsoid, middle turgid, both ends contracted and rostrate; seeds rounded   (2)
+ Capsule elongate, fusiform, clavate, or linear-cylindric; seeds oblong or obovoid   (7)
       
2 (1) Inflorescences sessile; flowers solitary or 2- or 3-fascicled in leaf axils   (3)
+ Inflorescences pedunculate, 2- or 3-5-flowered, subumbellate or racemose, rarely solitary flowers   (5)
       
3 (2) Leaves opposite, sessile or subsessile, linear or linear-lanceolate, base rounded or subcordate, margin remotely serrate; capsule glabrous.   1 I. chinensis
+ Leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate to ovate, base cuneate, margin sharply serrate to crenate or nearly entire; capsule tomentose or densely pubescent   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, base with few pairs of black glands, margin sharply serrate, glabrous or pubescent; capsules and flowers densely pubescent (cultivated).   2 I. balsamina
+ Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, basal margin often long ciliate, inconspicuously crenate or nearly entire; petioles, both surfaces of leaves, and flowers with multicellular hairs; capsule tomentose.   3 I. aureliana
       
5 (2) Leaves alternate, broadly elliptic or ovate, glabrous; flowers 2, rarely 3-5, red, crimson-red, pink, purple-red, purplish violet, or white; bracts linear-lanceolate or subulate (cultivated).   4 I. walleriana
+ Leaves opposite, alternate, or subverticellate, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic-lanceolate, hairy or only veins sparsely pilose; flowers 1 or 2, or 4-8 in subumbels or dense racemes, purple, pink-purple, or golden-yellow; bracts linear or ovate-lanceolate   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaves opposite or alternate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, adaxially appressed pilose, abaxially pubescent on veins; flowers 4-8 in subumbels or dense racemes, pink-purple, small; bracts linear, ciliate.   5 I. bracteata
+ Leaves alternate or subverticillate in upper part, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, adaxially veins slightly scabrid, abaxially glabrous; flowers 1 or 2, golden-yellow, throat purple spotted, 2-2.5 cm; bracts ovate-lanceolate, setose.   6 I. xanthina
       
7 (1) Distal lobes of lateral united petals connate or coadnate into lamella or at least auricle connate; capsule fusiform or clavate   (8)
+ Distal lobes of lateral united petals free; capsule clavate or linear-cylindric   (12)
       
8 (7) Lateral sepals 2; flowers yellow, white, or pink, spotted   (9)
+ Lateral sepals 4; flowers pink-purple   (10)
       
9 (8) Inflorescences not pedunculate, 1-flowered; pedicel without bracts; flowers white or pink, orange spotted   10 I. morsei
+ Inflorescences shortly pedunculate, 1-flowered, rarely 2-flowered; pedicel with small bracts at base; flowers yellowish, purple spotted.   11 I. hainanensis
       
10 (8) Inflorescences not pedunculate, 1-flowered; pedicel without bracts; leaf margin crenate-serrate.   9 I. musyana
+ Inflorescence very shortly pedunculate, 2-flowered, rarely 1-flowered; pedicel with persistent bracts at base; leaf margin serrulate   (11)
       
11 (10) Lateral united petals not clawed, basal lobes pyriform, distal lobes dolabriform (axe-shaped), lower sepal shortly saccate or cup-shaped, with an incurved spur; leaf blade 2.5-3.5 cm wide, lateral veins 8-15 pairs.   7 I. obesa
+ Lateral united petals clawed, basal lobes orbicular, distal lobes suborbicular, lower sepal funnelform, with a 2-lobed, short spur; leaf blade 5-7 cm wide, lateral veins 16-21 pairs.   8 I. polyneura
       
12 (7) Basal and distal lobes of lateral united petals apically acuminate, apex elongated into a filamentous hair or at least basal lobes apically with a long, filamentous hair (except I. gongshanensis)   (13)
+ Basal lobes of lateral united petals apically not acuminate, not elongated into a long filamentous hair   (31)
       
13 (12) Lateral sepals coarsely denticulate, irregularly lacerate, or acutely 4- or 5-denticulate on one side   (14)
+ Lateral sepals entire   (18)
       
14 (13) Lateral sepals coarsely denticulate or at least 4- or 5-denticulate   (15)
+ Lateral sepals inconspicuously denticulate or irregularly lacerate   (16)
       
15 (14) Lateral sepals often coarsely dentate; lateral united petals not clawed, basal and distal lobes lanceolate, apically with a long, filamentous hair; lower sepal with a 2-lobed, incurved, short spur.   209 I. dicentra
+ Lateral sepals inequilateral, 4- or 5-denticulate on one side, purple spotted; lateral united petals clawed, basal lobes oblong, apically with a filamentous hair 6-7 mm, distal lobes without a filamentous hair; lower sepal with 2 or 3, 2-lobed, short spurs.   210 I. paradoxa
       
16 (14) Inflorescences 1-flowered; bracts narrowly lanceolate; flowers orange-yellow or yellow; lateral sepals subovate-orbicular, inconspicuously denticulate; lower sepal with a hooked, 2-lobed spur; capsule ellipsoid.   211 I. fissicornis
+ Inflorescences 1-4-flowered; bracts oblong-ovate or narrowly ovate; flowers yellow or pale purple; lateral sepals orbicular or broadly ovate, irregularly lacerate, and sometimes irregularly fimbriate; lower sepal with an incurved, broad or 2-lobed spur; capsule linear   (17)
       
17 (16) Flowers yellow, to 4.5 cm; lateral sepals orbicular or broadly ovate-orbicular, margin and abaxial midvein irregularly fimbriate, lacerate; lower sepal narrowed into a hooked, incurved, 2-lobed spur 5-6 mm.   212 I. lacinulifera
+ Flowers pale purple, 2-3 cm; lateral sepals broadly ovate or suborbicular, margin irregularly lacerate; leaves basally with a few teeth and glandular hairs; lower sepal saccate, with an incurved, broad spur.   213 I. platyceras
       
18 (13) Basal and distal lobes of lateral united petals apically with a long, filamentous hair   (19)
+ Basal lobes of lateral united petals apically with a filamentous hair only, distal lobes apically without a filamentous hair or with a seta   (22)
       
19 (18) Peduncles very short, inflorescences 1-3-flowered; flowers smaller, white; lateral sepals broadly ovate-cordate, ca. 1 cm in diam., abaxial midvein cristate; lateral united petals broadly clawed; lower sepal broadly funnelform or subsaccate, with a 2-lobed, long spur.   214 I. toxophora
+ Peduncles longer, 1-3 cm, inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered, rarely 3-flowered; flowers 3-4 cm, yellow or bicolored; lateral sepals orbicular, 1-1.5 cm in diam., abaxial midvein not cristate; lower sepal saccate, with a 2-lobed, incurved, short spur   (20)
       
20 (19) Lateral sepals purple-red or purple spotted, many veined; upper petal with abaxial midvein broadly cristate, purple or yellow; lower sepal deeply saccate, with a 2-lobed, incurved, short spur; inflorescences terminal.   215 I. platychlaena
+ Lateral sepals green or yellow-green, abaxial midvein basally with a small sac or turgid; lower sepal saccate or saccate-funnelform, with a 2-denticulate or -lobed, incurved or not, stout spur; inflorescences axillary   (21)
       
21 (20) Inflorescences 1-flowered, peduncle 0.9-1.1 cm; upper petal orbicular, abaxial midvein large, rounded cristate, lateral united petals broadly shortly clawed, basal lobes purple spotted; lower sepal purple striate, with a 2-lobed, incurved, stout spur; leaf blade with 5 or 6 pairs of lateral veins.   216 I. vittata
+ Inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered, peduncle 2-3 cm; upper petal subreniform, abaxial midvein narrowly cristate, apex hooked-cuspidate, lateral united petals not clawed, basal lobes not spotted; lower sepal not purple striate, with a 2-denticulate, short, stout spur; leaf blade with 8-10 pairs of lateral veins.   217 I. robusta
       
22 (18) Flowers purple or pink-purple; lower sepal funnelform   (23)
+ Flowers yellow or white; lower sepal funnelform or saccate   (25)
       
23 (22) Lateral sepals broadly ovate, 10-12 mm wide, margin 4- or 5-denticulate on one side; distal lobes of lateral united petals apically with a long filamentous hair.   225 I. weihsiensis
+ Lateral sepals orbicular or obliquely ovate, 5-6 mm or 10-15 mm wide, margin entire   (24)
       
24 (23) Flowers pink; lateral sepals papery, orbicular, 10-15 mm in diam., glabrous, abaxial midvein carinate; distal lobes of lateral united petals broad, apically with a long seta; leaves alternate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, or upper ones rounded or cordate.   226 I. lecomtei
+ Flowers blue-purple; lateral sepals obliquely ovate, 5-6 mm wide, adpressed puberulent, 5-7-veined; distal lobes apically without a seta; leaves crowded at apex of stem, narrowly lanceolate.   227 I. gongshanensis
       
25 (22) Leaves rigid, base rounded, without glands; lateral sepals broadly ovate, apex acuminate, abaxial midvein narrowly cristate; distal lobes of lateral united petals apically rounded, apically with or without a seta.   218 I. soulieana
+ Leaves membranous, base acute, rounded, or subcordate, with stipitate glands or filamentous glands; lateral sepals with abaxial midvein cristate or carinate, or not thickened; distal lobes of lateral united petals apically obtuse, without a seta   (26)
       
26 (25) Lateral sepals with abaxial midvein not thickened, 7-9-veined; inflorescences 1-flowered, above middle 2-bracteate   (27)
+ Lateral sepals with abaxial midvein thickened, cristate or carinate; inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered, at middle bracteate   (28)
       
27 (26) Peduncles ca. 1 cm; bracts ovate-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm; flowers yellowish; upper petal with abaxial midvein green cristate; lower sepal saccate, with a hooked spur ca. 8 mm.   223 I. davidii
+ Peduncles 1.5-4.5 cm; bracts linear or ovate; flowers yellow, pink or reddish spotted; upper petal with abaxial midvein camel-backed, cristate; lower sepal broadly funnelform, with a 2-lobed, incurved spur ca. 25 mm.   224 I. tayemonii
       
28 (26) Peduncles 3-4 cm, inflorescences 2-flowered; flowers ca. 4 cm.   222 I. waldheimiana
+ Peduncles 0.5-1.5 cm, inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; flowers smaller   (29)
       
29 (28) Flowers pale yellow; lower sepal shortly saccate, with spur 4-5 mm; leaf blade with 7-9 pairs of lateral veins.   221 I. conaensis
+ Flowers white; lower sepal funnelform, with spur shorter than limb; leaf blade with 4-7 pairs of lateral veins   (30)
       
30 (29) Peduncles very short, inflorescences 1-flowered; flowers ca. 3 cm in diam.; bracts subulate; lateral sepals 12-20 mm wide, 7-veined, abaxial midvein acutely carinate; leaf blade 6-10 cm, apically acuminate or caudate.   219 I. brevipes
+ Peduncles 5-10 mm, inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; flowers 1.5-2 cm in diam.; bracts ovate, apex aristate; lateral sepals ca. 8 mm wide, abaxial midvein narrowly cristate; leaf blade 2-5 cm, apically acute.   220 I. mussotii
       
31 (12) Lowest pedicels of inflorescence without bract at base   (32)
+ Pedicels bracteate at base or middle   (80)
       
32 (31) Lower sepal navicular, without spur outside   (33)
+ Lower sepal cornute, narrowly funnelform, saccate, or dilated and incurved, with spur outside   (34)
       
33 (32) Middle and upper leaves sessile, base cordate, amplexicaul, margin nearly entire or shallowly undulate; flowers white, very small; distal lobes of lateral united petals oblong-lanceolate.   207 I. nubigena
+ All leaves shortly petiolate, base truncate or cuneate, margin remotely coarsely crenate; flowers yellow, medium-sized; lower sepal purple brown; distal lobes of lateral united petals linear, apically elongate 1.7-1.8 cm.   208 I. tenerrima
       
34 (32) Lateral sepals 4   (35)
+ Lateral sepals 2   (45)
       
35 (34) Lower sepal cornute or narrowly funnelform   (36)
+ Lower sepal saccate or dilated and incurved   (38)
       
36 (35) Peduncles 4-6 cm, inflorescences 4-6-flowered, racemose; bracts membranous, broadly ovate, green or pink-purple, caducous; flowers yellow, tinged purple; lower sepal cornute, with a clavate, curved slender spur 4-5 mm; leaf blade to 8.5 × 3.5 cm, lateral veins 6-8 pairs; plants to 50 cm tall.   168 I. cornucopia
+ Peduncles 1-1.5 cm, inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; bracts leaflike, lanceolate, persistent; flowers golden-yellow; lower sepal narrowly funnelform, with a curved or involute spur 15-20 mm; leaf blade to 3 × 1.5 cm, lateral veins 2-6 pairs; plants to 16 cm tall   (37)
       
37 (36) Peduncles glabrous; outer 2 sepals orbicular, inner 2 ovate; lower sepal purple spotted; leaves glabrous.   169 I. xanthocephala
+ Peduncles yellow-brown pubescent; outer 2 sepals ovate-lanceolate, inner 2 very small, linear; lower sepal and upper petal puberulent, not spotted; leaves pilose on veins.   170 I. hengduanensis
       
38 (35) Lower sepal dilated and incurved, base abruptly contracted into an erect spur.   167 I. gasterocheila
+ Lower sepal saccate, abruptly narrowed into a short or very short, 2-lobed, curved spur   (39)
       
39 (38) Stem and both surfaces of leaves pubescent; lateral sepals, upper petal, and lower sepal villous or barbate.   160 I. barbata
+ Stem, leaves, lateral sepals, upper petal, and lower sepal glabrous   (40)
       
40 (39) Stem, branches, and peduncles purple or red-brown spotted; outer 2 sepals linear-lanceolate.   161 I. stenosepala
+ Stem, branches, and peduncles not spotted; outer 2 sepals not linear-lanceolate   (41)
       
41 (40) Inflorescences 2-4-flowered; flowers pink or pale purple   (42)
+ Inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; flowers yellow or orange   (43)
       
42 (41) Flowers pale purple; outer sepals with abaxial midvein carinate, inner sepals subulate; leaves basally rounded or cordate, margin sharply serrate.   162 I. lushiensis
+ Flowers pink; outer sepals 5-7-veined, inner sepals narrowly oblong; leaves basally broadly cuneate, margin crenate-serrate.   163 I. anhuiensis
       
43 (41) Leaves rigidly papery, narrowly oblong or narrowly lanceolate, margin sharply serrate, lateral veins 9-11 pairs; flowers not spotted.   166 I. chiulungensis
+ Leaves membranous or thinly membranous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, margin crenate, lateral veins 4-7 pairs; flowers purple spotted   (44)
       
44 (43) All leaves homomorphic, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, shortly petiolate, caudate; upper petal with abaxial midvein conspicuously cristate, distal lobes of lateral united petals entire.   164 I. corchorifolia
+ Leaves heteromorphic, upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, subsessile, lower leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, long petiolate; upper petal midvein fine, carinate, distal lobes of lateral united petals denticulate.   165 I. dimorphophylla
       
45 (34) Anthers acute   (46)
+ Anthers obtuse   (53)
       
46 (45) Flowers purple-red or pale purple   (47)
+ Flowers yellow or yellowish   (48)
       
47 (46) Bracts linear-subulate, ca. 2 mm, flowers dark purple; upper petal orbicular, abaxial midvein with elephant-trunk-shaped long rostrum; lower sepal broadly funnelform.   177 I. nasuta
+ Bracts lanceolate, 3-4 mm, flowers pale violet; upper petal subreniform, abaxial midvein with recurved long rostrum near apex; lower sepal saccate.   178 I. compta
       
48 (46) Bracts orbicular or broadly ovate, margin denticulate   (49)
+ Bracts ovate, lanceolate, or subulate, margin crenate or entire   (50)
       
49 (48) Leaves rigid, oblong or ovate-oblong, lateral veins 6 or 7 pairs; bracts orbicular, 3-4 mm in diam., persistent; lateral sepals membranous, broadly ovate, 4-8-veined.   175 I. latebracteata
+ Leaves membranous, ovate or elliptic, lateral veins 3-5 pairs; bracts broadly ovate, 4-5 mm, caducous; lateral sepals obliquely ovate.   176 I. oligoneura
       
50 (48) Leaf margin shallowly crenate or nearly entire.   174 I. odontopetala
+ Leaf margin crenate   (51)
       
51 (50) Leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, base cuneate or rounded, adaxially dark green, abaxially green; bracts lanceolate; lateral sepals ovate, 5-6 mm.   171 I. noli-tangere
+ Leaves elliptic or ovate-oblong, base rounded or cordate, adaxially green, abaxially pale green or gray-green; bracts ovate, very small; lateral sepals orbicular or broadly ovate, 6-8 mm   (52)
       
52 (51) Bracts 2-3 mm; lateral sepals subcordate, green veined, mucronulate; lateral united petals long clawed, distal lobes narrowly elliptic; flowers yellowish; lower sepal purple spotted.   172 I. longialata
+ Bracts very small or basal pedicels without bracts; lateral sepals orbicular, reticulate veined; lateral united petals not clawed, distal lobes dolabriform; flowers yellow-white.   173 I. sutchuenensis
       
53 (45) Leaf margin coarsely crenate or undulate   (54)
+ Leaf margin serrate, rarely crenate-serrate   (60)
       
54 (53) Lower and median leaves long petiolate, upper leaves sessile or subsessile, base cordate-amplexicaul, margin coarsely crenate; lower sepal cup-shaped, subglobose, or saccate   (55)
+ All leaves petiolate, base cuneate, margin crenate-dentate; flowers yellow; lower sepal navicular or salver-shaped   (57)
       
55 (54) Flowers yellow or pink-white; lower sepal subglobose or cup-shaped, violet or purplish yellow striate; leaf blade to 5 cm wide; plants to 90 cm tall.   179 I. poculifer
+ Flowers pale purple, purple-red, or dirty yellow; lower sepal saccate; leaf blade to 3 cm wide; plants 30-60 cm tall   (56)
       
56 (55) Flowers pale purple or dirty yellow; lower sepal with an incurved, short spur.   180 I. delavayi
+ Flowers purple-red; lower sepal without spur or with an erect spur shorter than 2 mm.   181 I. subecalcarata
       
57 (54) Bracts linear or subulate; lateral sepals ovate or suborbicular, abaxial midvein without a process; lateral united petals sessile or subsessile, distal lobes of lateral united petals abaxially lobed or incised   (58)
+ Bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate; lateral sepals ovate or linear, abaxial midvein carinate; distal lobes of lateral united petals entire   (59)
       
58 (57) Leaf blade broadly ovate or orbicular, base cuneate, margin coarsely crenate; bracts linear; upper petal with abaxial midvein angular; lower sepal navicular, with an incurved spur ca. 1.5 cm.   182 I. notolopha
+ Leaf blade ovate or ovate-orbicular, base truncate or cordate, margin undulate; bracts subulate; upper petal with abaxial midvein carinate; lower sepal salver-shaped, with an involute spur ca. 2 cm.   183 I. undulata
       
59 (57) Bracts ovate; lateral sepals ovate, hyaline margined, abaxial midvein narrowly winged; basal lobes of lateral united petals falcate, recurved; flowers yellowish, upper petal purple-red spotted; plants to 60 cm tall.   184 I. muliensis
+ Bracts ovate-lanceolate; lateral sepals linear, abaxial midvein carinate; basal lobes of lateral united petals ovate; flowers white; lateral sepals green; plants to 30 cm tall.   185 I. apsotis
       
60 (53) Plant usually hairy   (61)
+ Plant glabrous   (63)
       
61 (60) Plants yellow-brown spreading tomentose; flowers yellow or white; margin of lateral sepals entire; leaf blade 3-8 cm.   186 I. lasiophyton
+ Stem, branches, and young leaves yellow-brown tomentulose or at least upper part and nodes yellow-brown pubescent; flowers orange or purple-red; margin of lateral sepals denticulate; leaf blade 5-12 cm   (62)
       
62 (61) Stem, branches, and peduncles densely yellow-brown tomentose; flowers orange; lateral sepals ovate; leaf margin serrate.   187 I. tomentella
+ Upper stem and nodes often sparsely yellow-brown pubescent; flowers purple-red; lateral sepals subovate, inequilateral, margin denticulate on one side; leaf margin serrulate.   188 I. leptocaulon
       
63 (60) Margin of lateral sepals ± denticulate   (64)
+ Margin of lateral sepals entire   (67)
       
64 (63) Leaf margin serrulate, blade 3-5 cm; flowers yellow.   192 I. minimisepala
+ Leaf margin crenate or coarsely crenate, blade 4-12 cm; flowers pink, purple, or purple-red   (65)
       
65 (64) Flowers pink, ca. 1.5 cm; lateral sepals ovate-cordate, 3-4 mm, margin denticulate on one side; leaf blade with 4-6 pairs of lateral veins.   191 I. torulosa
+ Flowers purple or purple-red, 3.5-4.5 cm; lateral sepals 3-6 mm wide, margin ciliate or denticulate; leaf blade with 7-12 pairs of lateral veins   (66)
       
66 (65) Bracts linear, 3-4 mm, caducous; lateral sepals ovate or orbicular, 3-4 mm wide, margin ciliate or remotely denticulate; upper petal subreniform, abaxial midvein narrowly thickened; lower sepal with spur to 3.5 cm.   189 I. blepharosepala
+ Bracts lanceolate, 5-7 mm, persistent; lateral sepals broadly ovate, 5-6 mm wide, margin long cuspidate, denticulate; upper petal oblate, ca. 3.5 cm wide, abaxial midvein narrowly carinate; lower sepal with spur 2-2.5 cm.   190 I. macrovexilla
       
67 (63) Inflorescences 3-7- or 6-8-flowered; flowers in racemes   (68)
+ Inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered, rarely 1- or 4-flowered, arranged divaricately or subumbellately   (71)
       
68 (67) Inflorescences 6-8-flowered; bracts subulate, 2-3 mm; flowers yellow, ca. 4 cm; lateral sepals reniform-orbicular, apex cuspidate.   203 I. tortisepala
+ Inflorescences 3-7-flowered; bracts ovate-lanceolate or broadly ovate; flowers pale purple or white, 3-3.5 cm; lateral sepals not reniform   (69)
       
69 (68) Flowers pale purple; bracts herbaceous, ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 mm, persistent; lateral sepals ovate, ca. 4 mm, 3-5-veined; lower sepal funnelform, with a 2-lobed, curved spur 1-4 cm; leaf blade to 12 cm.   204 I. tienmushanica
+ Flowers white or yellow; bracts membranous, broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, caducous; lateral sepals elliptic or ovate, 5-5.5 mm; lower sepal saccate or funnelform, with an erect or incurved spur 1.5-2.2 cm; leaf blade 14-15 cm   (70)
       
70 (69) Peduncles stout, inflorescences 4-6-flowered; flowers white; lateral sepals ovate, ca. 5 mm; upper petal suborbicular, abaxial midvein narrowly carinate; lower sepal funnelform, with an erect spur 1.5-1.8 cm; leaf blade with 7-9 pairs of lateral veins.   205 I. jiulongshanica
+ Peduncles slender, inflorescences 3-6-flowered; flowers yellow; lateral sepals elliptic, ca. 5.5 mm; upper petal obovate, abaxial midvein incarinate; lower sepal saccate, with an erect or incurved spur ca. 2.2 cm; leaf blade with 5 or 6 pairs of lateral veins.   206 I. devolii
       
71 (67) Peduncles shorter than 1 cm, stout, inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered, not divaricate   (72)
+ Peduncles 2-3 cm, rarely to 6 cm, slender, inflorescences 2-4-flowered, divaricate   (73)
       
72 (71) Flowers pink, pedicel 15-25 mm; lateral sepals 1-1.5 cm; lower sepal broadly funnelform, with an involute, long spur 3-4 cm.   201 I. platysepala
+ Flowers yellow-green, pedicel 7-10 mm; lateral sepals ca. 1.8 cm; lower sepal navicular, with a recurved, slender spur ca. 1.5 cm.   202 I. chloroxantha
       
73 (71) Bracts membranous, not linear or linear-lanceolate, caducous or persistent   (74)
+ Bracts herbaceous, persistent   (76)
       
74 (73) Leaves often crowded at apex of stem, ovate-lanceolate, margin crenulate or serrate; peduncles 3-5 cm, puberulent; flowers 2, pink, 8-12 mm; lateral sepals subovate or subfalcate; lower sepal funnelform, with an erect spur ca. 1.8 cm; plants of Hubei.   198 I. exiguiflora
+ Leaves remote, ovate or ovate-elliptic, margin coarsely crenate or crenate-serrate; peduncles shorter than leaves, glabrous; flowers (1 or)2 or 3(or 4), purple or pink, 25-35 mm in diam.; lateral sepals oblong-ovate; lower sepal narrowly funnelform, with a slightly curved or incurved spur 2-2.5 cm; plants of Jiangxi   (75)
       
75 (74) Bracts pink, ovate-cordate, ca. 8 mm; lateral sepals 8-9 mm, apically inconspicuously mucronulate; leaf blade basally without glands, lateral veins 7-9 pairs.   199 I. fenghwaiana
+ Bracts purple, elliptic-ovate, 5-7 mm; lateral sepals apically conspicuously cuspidate; leaf blade with 1 or 2 pairs of stipitate glands on petiole, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs.   200 I. wuyuanensis
       
76 (73) Peduncles longer or shorter than leaves, inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered; flowers white or green-white   (77)
+ Peduncles 2-6 cm, inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered, rarely 1- or 4-flowered; flowers yellow, purple, or pink   (78)
       
77 (76) Peduncles overtopping leaves, inflorescences 2-flowered; flowers 1-1.5 cm in diam.; lateral sepals ovate, 6-7 mm, S-curved; leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-6 cm, margin serrulate.   193 I. sigmoidea
+ Peduncles shorter than leaves, inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered; flowers ca. 2.5 cm deep; lateral sepals obliquely orbicular, 8-10 mm in diam.; leaf blade ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, margin crenate or serrate.   194 I. nobilis
       
78 (76) Peduncles 4-6 cm, inflorescences 2-4-flowered; flowers yellow, ca. 4 cm; lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 mm; lower sepal broadly funnelform, incurved, with a slender spur ca. 1 cm; leaf blade to 15 cm, papery, margin sharply serrate, near base stipitate ciliate; plants of Yunnan.   195 I. divaricata
+ Peduncles 2-3 cm, inflorescences (1 or)2- or 3-flowered; flowers pink-purple or pink, 2-2.5 cm; lateral sepals ovate, 3-7-veined; lower sepal narrowly funnelform, with spur ca. 1.2 cm or 2-2.5 cm; leaf blade 4-7 cm, membranous, margin crenate or coarsely serrate; plants of Zhejiang   (79)
       
79 (78) Inflorescences 2(or 3)-flowered, subdivaricate, peduncles 2-3 cm; bracts linear or linear-lanceolate, 3-6 mm; lateral sepals ovate-orbicular, 5-9-veined; mouth of lower sepal oblique, tip rostellate; leaf blade to 7 cm, with glands, lateral veins 5-7 pairs.   196 I. chekiangensis
+ Inflorescences 1-flowered, peduncles 1.3-1.7 cm; bracts ovate-orbicular, to 3.5 mm; lateral sepals 3-veined; mouth of lower sepal vertical, tip mucronulate; leaf blade to 4 cm, without glands, lateral veins 3-5 pairs.   197 I. taishunensis
       
80 (31) Inflorescences 1- or 2(or 3)-flowered   (81)
+ Inflorescences more than 3-flowered   (157)
       
81 (80) Lateral sepals 4; anthers obtuse   (82)
+ Lateral sepals 2; anthers obtuse or acute   (89)
       
82 (81) Lower sepal saccate   (83)
+ Lower sepal navicular or narrowly funnelform   (86)
       
83 (82) Flowers purplish yellow; margin of leaf blade crenate-serrulate.   90 I. leveillei
+ Flowers purple to bluish purple; margin of leaf blade sharply serrate or serrulate   (84)
       
84 (83) Margin of leaf blade sharply serrulate; plant 40-50 cm tall; flowers bluish purple.   91 I. abbatis
+ Margin of leaf blade sharply serrate; plant 60-70 cm tall; flowers purple or pink   (85)
       
85 (84) Leaf blade linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 0.8-1.8 cm wide.   93 I. linghziensis
+ Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-4.5 cm wide.   92 I. arguta
       
86 (82) Flowers yellow   (87)
+ Flowers purplish   (88)
       
87 (86) Flowers ca. 2.5 cm deep; leaf blade 2.5-3 cm wide.   55 I. luchunensis
+ Flowers ca. 4 cm deep; leaf blade 4-6 cm wide.   54 I. maguanensis
       
88 (86) Plants 10-30 cm tall, perennial; leaf blade 1.5-2 cm, apex acuminate; lower sepal narrowly funnelform   56 I. taronensis
+ Plants 1-2 m tall, annual; leaf blade 2.5-6 cm, apex acute; lower sepal navicular.   57 I. porphyrea
       
89 (81) Anthers obtuse   (90)
+ Anthers acute   (117)
       
90 (89) Flowers deeper than 3 cm   (91)
+ Flowers shorter than 3 cm   (101)
       
91 (90) Lateral sepals linear to lanceolate   (92)
+ Lateral sepals ovate or oblong-ovate to orbicular   (94)
       
92 (91) Flowers pink; leaf blade 3-6 cm.   148 I. begoniifolia
+ Flowers yellow; leaf blade 5-15 cm   (93)
       
93 (92) Lower sepal navicular; abaxial midvein of upper petal cristate; leaf blade 4-7 cm wide, margin crenate.   146 I. wuchengyihii
+ Lower sepal cornute; abaxial midvein of upper petal fine; leaf blade 2-3 cm wide, margin crenulate.   158 I. arctosepala
       
94 (91) Flowers pink or reddish   (95)
+ Flowers yellow or yellowish   (97)
       
95 (94) Upper petal with abaxial midvein cristate; lower sepal navicular; leaf blade abaxially gray-green; plants of Yunnan.   147 I. yingjiangensis
+ Upper petal with abaxial midvein narrowly carinate; lower sepal funnelform; leaf blade abaxially pale green; plants of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Guizhou   (96)
       
96 (95) Plants 60-100 cm tall, ± hairy.   109 I. napoensis
+ Plants 30-40 cm tall, glabrous.   149 I. chlorosepala
       
97 (94) Abaxial midvein of upper petal cristate   (98)
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal carinate   (99)
       
98 (97) Plants to 30 cm tall, hairy.   145 I. kamtilongensis
+ Plants more than 100 cm tall, glabrous.   151 I. extensifolia
       
99 (97) Lower sepal navicular; leaf petiole 3-4 cm, blade adaxially green; plants 30-60 cm tall.   143 I. monticola
+ Lower sepal funnelform to saccate; leaf petiole 1-3 cm, blade adaxially dark green; plants 15-40 cm tall   (100)
       
100 (99) Leaf blade 2.5-3.5 cm wide; stem glabrous.   142 I. mengtszeana
+ Leaf blade 1-2 cm wide; stem ± hairy.   144 I. trichosepala
       
101 (90) Abaxial midvein of upper petal cristate or rostellate   (102)
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal carinate or thickened   (109)
       
102 (101) Plants ± hairy   (103)
+ Plants glabrous   (105)
       
103 (102) Plants more than 100 cm tall; leaf blade (10-)15-20 cm.   159 I. bodinieri
+ Plants 30-60 cm tall; leaf blade 3-10 cm   (104)
       
104 (103) Flowers ca. 2.5 cm deep; abaxial midvein of upper petal cornute-carinate; leaf petiole to 5 mm, base of leaf blade rounded, lateral veins 7-9 pairs.   101 I. scabrida
+ Flowers ca. 3 cm deep; abaxial midvein of upper petal rostellate; leaf petiole 10-20 mm, base of leaf blade cuneate, lateral veins 4-6 pairs.   156 I. ganpiuana
       
105 (102) Lower sepal cornute; leaf margin crenulate.   105 I. diaphana
+ Lower sepal funnelform or navicular; leaf margin crenate-serrate or serrate   (106)
       
106 (105) Leaf blade 5-8 cm, lateral veins 6-10 pairs.   155 I. martinii
+ Leaf blade 2-4 cm, lateral veins 3-5 pairs   (107)
       
107 (106) Plants 40-60 cm tall; lower sepal broadly funnelform or navicular; abaxial midvein of upper petal with conspicuous crista or sac.   152 I. rostellata
+ Plants 10-30 cm tall; lower sepal funnelform; abaxial midvein of upper petal cristate   (108)
       
108 (107) Plants 10-20 cm tall; flowers solitary, ?pink; leaf blade 2-2.5 cm wide.   104 I. trichopoda
+ Plants 20-30 cm tall; flowers 2-4, yellow; leaf blade 1-2 cm wide.   153 I. alpicola
       
109 (101) Distal lobes of lateral united petals falcate basally.   103 I. falcifer
+ Distal lobes of lateral united petals not falcate basally   (110)
       
110 (109) Lower sepal without a spur.   102 I. serrata
+ Lower sepal with a spur   (111)
       
111 (110) Plants (30-)40-80 cm tall; lower sepal navicular.   154 I. crassiloba
+ Plants 15-40 cm tall; lower sepal saccate-funnelform, funnelform, or deeply navicular   (112)
       
112 (111) Lower sepal deeply navicular or rarely subfunnelform   (113)
+ Lower sepal saccate-funnelform, funnelform, or rarely narrowly funnelform   (114)
       
113 (112) Plants ca. 25 cm tall; leaf blade linear-oblong or lanceolate, 5-8 cm, margin serrulate, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs.   150 I. ernstii
+ Plants 40-60 cm tall; leaf blade elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 8-18 cm, margin crenate-serrate, lateral veins 9-11 pairs.   72 I. cymbifera
       
114 (112) Flowers yellow, ca. 1.5 cm deep; plants of Zhejiang.   139 I. suichangensis
+ Flowers pink or pinkish purple, 1.5-2.5 cm deep; plants of Xizang and Yunnan   (115)
       
115 (114) Plants 20-30 cm tall, perennial; flowers 2-2.5 cm deep; leaf blade 5-9 cm, abaxially yellow-brown when dry.   51 I. microcentra
+ Plants 5-20 cm tall, annual; flowers 1.5-2 cm deep; leaf blade 1-3.5(-5) cm, abaxially green, or purple spotted   (116)
       
116 (115) Flowers ca. 2 cm deep; leaf blade 1-2 cm, papery, lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs.   62 I. tsangshanensis
+ Flowers 1.5-2 cm deep; leaf blade 2-3.5(-5) cm, membranous, lateral veins 5 pairs.   50 I. medogensis
       
117 (89) Flowers yellow   (118)
+ Flowers purple   (131)
       
118 (117) Lower sepal saccate   (119)
+ Lower sepal funnelform or navicular   (122)
       
119 (118) Upper petal with horn ca. 1 cm; leaf margin crenulate-serrate.   30 I. longicornuta
+ Upper petal without a conspicuous horn; leaf margin serrate or coarsely serrate   (120)
       
120 (119) Basal lobes of lateral united petals larger than distal lobes; apex of leaf blade subacute.   97 I. yunnanensis
+ Basal lobes of lateral united petals smaller than distal lobes; apex of leaf blade acuminate   (121)
       
121 (120) Abaxial midvein of upper petal rostellate at middle, basal lobes of lateral united petals orbicular; peduncle 1-1.5 cm; leaf lateral veins 5-7 pairs.   29 I. conchibracteata
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal keeled, basal lobes of lateral united petals ovate; peduncle 4-5 cm; leaf lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs.   157 I. lepida
       
122 (118) Stems prostrate or procumbent   (123)
+ Stems erect   (125)
       
123 (122) Leaf blade rhombic or subrhombic, base cuneate; lower sepal navicular, with an erect, slender spur.   112 I. rhombifolia
+ Leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, base attenuate; lower sepal with an incurved spur   (124)
       
124 (123) Flowers 2 or 3, yellow, ca. 2.5 cm deep; lateral sepals ovate, 3-5 mm, curved-falcate; distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform; leaf blade 5-7 cm, margin crenate-serrate or serrate.   110 I. reptans
+ Flowers 1 or 2, golden yellow, 1.5-2 cm deep; lateral sepals obliquely ovate, slightly thick, 3-4 mm, with falcate process; distal lobes of lateral united petals obovate-oblong; leaf blade 2-3 cm, margin serrulate.   111 I. procumbens
       
125 (122) Flowers pale yellow   (126)
+ Flowers yellow   (127)
       
126 (125) Lower sepal funnelform; leaf blade 5-10 × 3-4.5 cm.   136 I. potaninii
+ Lower sepal navicular; leaf blade 3-5(-7) × 2.5-3 cm.   137 I. bellula
       
127 (125) Leaf blade 1.5-2 cm wide, margin spinescent-serrate.   95 I. atherosepala
+ Leaf blade 2-4 cm wide, margin serrate or crenate   (128)
       
128 (127) Margin of leaf blade serrulate; abaxial midvein of upper petal cornute below middle   96 I. labordei
+ Margin of leaf blade coarsely or moderately serrate or crenate; abaxial midvein of upper petal keeled or with a small sac at middle   (129)
       
129 (128) Abaxial midvein of upper petal with a small sac at middle; apex of leaf blade acute.   125 I. lucorum
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal keeled; apex of leaf blade caudate-acuminate   (130)
       
130 (129) Base of leaf blade cuneate, attenuate into petiole, margin crenate or serrate, lateral veins 6-8 pairs.   131 I. meyana
+ Base of leaf blade broadly cuneate, margin coasely serrate, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs.   157 I. lepida
       
131 (117) Lower sepal saccate   (132)
+ Lower sepal funnelform, navicular, or cornute   (134)
       
132 (131) Stems winged.   115 I. uniflora
+ Stems wingless   (133)
       
133 (132) Abaxial midvein of upper petal conspicuously carinate with an apical horn, distal lobes of lateral united petals falcate-flabellate; leaf blade abaxially pale green; plants of Sichuan and Yunnan.   129 I. forrestii
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal inconspicuously carinate with an apical horn, distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform; leaf blade abaxially purple; plants of Henan and Shanxi.   119 I. henanensis
       
134 (131) Lower sepal cornute   (135)
+ Lower sepal not cornute   (136)
       
135 (134) Flowers not more than 2 cm in diam.; pedicels and bracts puberulent; peduncle 2-3 cm; leaf blade membranous.   120 I. imbecilla
+ Flowers more than 2 cm in diam.; pedicels and bracts glabrous; peduncle 5-10 cm; leaf blade papery.   122 I. faberi
       
136 (134) Stems prostrate or procumbent   (137)
+ Stems erect   (139)
       
137 (136) Leaf blade membranous, to 1.8 cm wide, adaxial surface pilose on veins, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs; lateral sepals apically reflexed, long mucronulate; lateral united petals not clawed, distal lobes broadly dolabriform; plants to 100 cm tall.   108 I. tienchuanensis
+ Leaf blade rigidly papery, 3-3.5 cm wide, margin and adaxial surface strigose on veins, lateral veins 5-7 pairs; lateral sepals apically cuspidate or mucronulate; lateral united petals clawed or ± clawed, distal lobes suborbicular or dolabriform; plants 40-60 cm tall   (138)
       
138 (137) Bracts lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; lateral united petals clawed, distal lobes suborbicular, indistinctly auriculate; margin of leaf blade serrate; plants to 40 cm tall.   106 I. commelinoides
+ Bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate; lateral united petals ± clawed, distal lobes dolabriform, with lunate inflexed auricle; margin of leaf blade crenate-serrate; plants to 60 cm tall.   107 I. fanjingshanica
       
139 (136) Stems simple or rarely branched at middle   (140)
+ Stems branched or repent basally   (144)
       
140 (139) Leaf blade 3-5 cm; plants less than 20 cm tall.   114 I. pudica
+ Leaf blade 5-15 cm; plants 30-100 cm tall   (141)
       
141 (140) Abaxial midvein of upper petal inconspicuously keeled and without any appendage; plants ca. 30 cm tall.   98 I. trigonosepala
+ Abaxial midvein of upper petal conspicuously keeled and cristate   (142)
       
142 (141) Apex of upper petal with a beak ca. 5 mm.   99 I. recurvicornis
+ Apex of upper petal not beaked   (143)
       
143 (142) Leaf blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, margin crenate.   89 I. puberula
+ Leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, margin coarsely and sharply serrate.   94 I. lemeei
       
144 (139) Limb of lower sepal funnelform; flowers solitary   (145)
+ Lower sepal cornute or navicular (but funnelform or saccate in a few species); inflorescences of 2 or 3 fascicled flowers, racemose, or flowers solitary (I. piufanensis and I. odontophylla)   (147)
       
145 (144) Leaves basally without glands; lateral sepals lanceolate, basally denticulate, abaxial midvein keeled; lower sepal with a slender spur 1-1.5 cm; peduncle to 6 cm.   118 I. linocentra
+ Leaves basally with 1 or 2 glands; lateral sepals narrowly ovate, margin sometimes denticulate on one side, abaxial midvein with a narrow wing; lower sepal with a long, incurved spur to 4.5 cm; peduncle 3-4.4 cm   (146)
       
146 (145) Margin of leaf blade crenate, base with 2 globose glands; lateral sepals ovate, margin sometimes denticulate on one side; distal lobes of lateral united petals broadly oblong; lower sepal narrowly funnelform with a slender, incurved spur.   116 I. pterosepala
+ Margin of leaf blade serrate, base with 1-3 pairs of globose glands; lateral sepals ovate-orbicular, inequilateral, margin entire; distal lobes of lateral united petals oblong; lower sepal broadly funnelform with a slightly incurved spur ca. 3.5 cm.   117 I. neglecta
       
147 (144) Auricle of lateral united petals elongate and linear, inserted in spur of lower sepal; lower sepal erect or incurved   (148)
+ Auricle of lateral united petals not elongate, not inserted in spur of lower sepal; lower sepal incurved or involute   (150)
       
148 (147) Flowers more than 2 cm in diam., purple-red; pedicels and bracts glabrous; peduncle 5-10 cm; leaf blade papery.   122 I. faberi
+ Flowers not more than 2 cm in diam.; pedicels and bracts puberulent; peduncle 2-3 cm; leaf blade membranous   (149)
       
149 (148) Flowers reddish or pink; bracts linear-lanceolate, caducous; distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform, apex rounded; lower sepal cornute, with an erect spur; leaf blade adaxially dark green, abaxially gray-green.   120 I. imbecilla
+ Flowers pink-purple; bracts lanceolate, persistent; distal lobes of lateral united petals broadly incised; lower sepal navicular, with an incurved, short spur; leaf blade adaxially green, abaxially pale green.   121 I. distracta
       
150 (147) Limb of lower sepal navicular   (151)
+ Limb of lower sepal funnelform   (152)
       
151 (150) Leaf blade rigid, margin crenate or crenate-serrate, basally with stipitate glands; flowers pink-purple; lateral sepals rigid, cordate; abaxial midvein of upper petal rostrate or shortly carinate at middle, distal lobes of lateral united petals large, dolabriform, apically broadly incised.   140 I. amabilis
+ Leaf blade membranous, margin serrate, base without glands; flowers purple; lateral sepals herbaceous, ovate; abaxial midvein of upper petal green, clavate, erect, rostellate at middle, distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform, apically incised.   141 I. rectirostrata
       
152 (150) Stem base or nodes of lower part swollen to tuberiform with adventitious roots   (153)
+ Stem base and lower nodes without swollen globose tuber   (154)
       
153 (152) Stem basally procumbent, lower nodes swollen to tuberiform; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, abaxially spinose on veins; basal lobes of lateral united petals rounded-obtuse; lower sepal with spur ca. as long as limb.   126 I. piufanensis
+ Stem erect, base with subglobose tuber; leaf blade narrowly oblong or linear-lanceolate, lateral veins 7 pairs, adaxially brown pilose; basal lobes of lateral united petals mucronulate; lower sepal with a slender spur 10-12 mm.   127 I. epilobioides
       
154 (152) Leaf blade rigidly papery, margin inconspicuously serrulate.   133 I. bachii
+ Leaf blade membranous, margin coarsely serrate or serrate   (155)
       
155 (154) Inflorescences 2- or 3-flowered; lateral sepals orbicular.   128 I. oxyanthera
+ Inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; lateral sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate   (156)
       
156 (155) Peduncles ca. as long as leaves, inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered; bracts lanceolate; flowers violet, 3-5 cm deep; lateral sepals ovate-falcate, ca. 7 mm, 5-veined; lower sepal with an incurved, slender spur ca. 2 cm; leaf blade adaxially dark green, abaxially pale green; plants to 60 cm tall.   130 I. lilacina
+ Peduncles shorter than leaves, inflorescences 1-flowered; bracts linear-lanceolate; flowers pink, ca. 2 cm deep, purple spotted; lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, 3-veined; lower sepal with a short, curved spur; leaf blade adaxially green, abaxially gray-green; plants to 25 cm tall.   132 I. odontophylla
       
157 (80) Flowers 4-5 cm; lower sepal saccate or saccate-funnelform   (158)
+ Flowers medium-sized or smaller, not more than 4 cm; lower sepal funnelform, cup-shaped, narrowly funnelform, or cornute   (175)
       
158 (157) Lateral sepals 2   (159)
+ Lateral sepals 4, outer 2 ovate or obliquely ovate, inner 2 narrowly linear or linear-lanceolate   (162)
       
159 (158) Flowers white, red striate; bracts herbaceous, lanceolate.   31 I. rubrostriata
+ Flowers yellow; bracts fleshy, broadly ovate   (160)
       
160 (159) Leaves submembranous, adaxially green; upper part of stem sparsely pubescent; lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs; lateral sepals obliquely ovate.   28 I. hunanensis
+ Leaves papery, adaxially dark green; upper part of stem gray-brown or yellow-brown tomentose; lateral veins 5-9 pairs; lateral sepals obovate or orbicular   (161)
       
161 (160) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-elliptic, lateral veins 7-9 pairs; lateral sepals thickening, obovate, many veined; lateral united petals shortly clawed, distal lobes dolabriform.   26 I. duclouxii
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, lateral veins 5-7 pairs; lateral sepals membranous, orbicular, veins reticulate; lateral united petals not clawed, distal lobes broadly ovate.   27 I. cyclosepala
       
162 (158) Leaves remote on stem; peduncles axillary, much longer than leaves; lower sepal subglobose or cup-shaped.   12 I. chimiliensis
+ Leaves crowded at upper part of stem; peduncles terminal or axillary, shorter than leaves or equaling leaves; lower sepal saccate or broadly funnelform   (163)
       
163 (162) Flowers yellow, yellowish, or pink; lower sepal saccate   (164)
+ Flowers yellow or white; lower sepal saccate or saccate-funnelform   (169)
       
164 (163) Plants perennial   (165)
+ Plants annual   (166)
       
165 (164) Peduncles shorter than leaves, inflorescences 4-7-flowered; bracts membranous, ovate-oblong; flowers yellowish, throat red or red-purple spotted; lateral united petals clawed, to 3 cm.   13 I. hongkongensis
+ Peduncles longer than leaves or ca. as long as leaves, inflorescences 3-8(-13)-flowered; bracts leathery, ovate or navicular; flowers yellow, lower sepal red-brownish striate; lateral united petals broadly clawed, ca. 2 cm.   14 I. pritzelii
       
166 (164) Flowers yellow; lower sepal saccate   (167)
+ Flowers pink; lower sepal broadly funnelform   (168)
       
167 (166) Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; peduncles shorter than leaves, inflorescences 3- or 4-flowered; abaxial midvein of outer sepals with a narrow wing; lateral united petals shortly clawed, ca. 1.5 cm, distal lobes obovate; lower sepal with spur ca. 2 cm.   15 I. tubulosa
+ Leaves obovate or spatulate, apex acute; peduncles ca. as long as leaves, inflorescences 2-4-flowered; outer sepals with conspicuous veins; lateral united petals not clawed, to 2 cm, distal lobes subdolabriform, emarginate; lower sepal with a short spur.   16 I. spathulata
       
168 (166) Leaf blade ovate-oblong, lateral veins 5-7 pairs; inflorescences 2-5-flowered; flowers 2-3.5 cm; basal lobes of lateral united petals obliquely ovate, distal lobes oblong, apically obtuse.   17 I. chishuiensis
+ Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, lateral veins 7-11 pairs; inflorescences 3-8(-11)-flowered; flowers 4-4.5 cm; basal lobes of lateral united petals obovate, distal lobes oblong-dolabriform, apically slightly acute.   18 I. guizhouensis
       
169 (163) Flowers to 5 cm; lower sepal saccate, with an involute or cochleate, slender spur 2-3 cm.   19 I. apalophylla
+ Flowers smaller; lower sepal saccate to funnelform, with a stout or short spur ca. 1/2 as long as limb   (170)
       
170 (169) Anthers apically acute   (171)
+ Anthers apically obtuse   (172)
       
171 (170) Petiole 3.5-5 cm, leaf blade 9-12 × 3.5-4 cm; peduncle ca. 1.5 cm; pedicel ca. 1.5 cm; flowers ca. 2 cm, spur ca. 8 mm.   21 I. clavigeroides
+ Petiole to 2.5 cm, leaf blade 7-9 × 2.5-3.5 cm; peduncle 2-2.5 cm; pedicel ca. 1 cm; flowers ca. 3 cm, spur ca. 4 mm.   22 I. linearisepala
       
172 (170) Lower sepal with an involute or incurved, short spur, not longer than 1 cm   (173)
+ Lower sepal with spur ca. 1 cm, ca. 1/2 as long as limb   (174)
       
173 (172) Flowers yellow, upper petal triangular-orbicular, apex obtuse; lower sepal narrowly funnelform, with an involute, stout spur; leaf petiole 4-6 cm, not glandular; inflorescences terminal.   24 I. omeiana
+ Flowers white, upper petal elliptic, apex mucronulate; lower sepal saccate, with a very short, curved spur; leaves shortly petiolate or subsessile, base remotely glandular; inflorescences axillary.   25 I. wilsonii
       
174 (172) Stem robust, usually winged; leaf blade membranous, oblanceolate or obovate, margin crenate-serrate, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, petiole 1-2 cm; bracts smaller, caducous.   20 I. clavigera
+ Stem fleshy, wingless; leaf blade rigid, oblong or ovate-oblong, margin inconspicuously denticulate, serrulate, or nearly entire, lateral veins 9-12 pairs, petiole 5-12 cm; bracts ca. 1.5 cm, herbaceous.   23 I. balansae
       
175 (157) Distal lobes of lateral united petals loriform or narrowly lanceolate   (176)
+ Distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform or semilunar or ovate   (187)
       
176 (175) Lateral sepals 4, outer 2 ovate or falcate-elliptic, inner 2 minute, linear or subulate   (177)
+ Lateral sepals 2   (178)
       
177 (176) Leaves crowded at apices of stem and branches, oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate; inflorescences 4-6-flowered; lower sepal with a cylindric, erect spur ca. as broad as limb.   52 I. holocentra
+ Leaves along stem remotely arranged, linear or linear-oblong; inflorescences 8-12-flowered; lower sepal with a narrowed, curved, slender spur ca. 14 mm.   53 I. tongbiguanensis
       
178 (176) Apices of lateral sepals and tip of mouth of lower sepal rostellate or with a long horn; flowers purple or pink-purple.   49 I. tenuibracteata
+ Apices of lateral sepals and tip of mouth of lower sepal cuspidate, rostellate or long aristate; flowers yellow or golden-yellow   (179)
       
179 (178) Lateral sepals navicular or narrowly oblong, apex cuspidate; tip of mouth of lower sepal shortly rostellate or acuminate; bracts persistent   (180)
+ Lateral sepals ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or hooked-falcate; tip of mouth of lower sepal slightly acute, cornute-rostellate or long aristate; bracts caducous   (182)
       
180 (179) Flowers yellow, purple spotted; lateral sepals ovate, apex apiculate; lower sepal navicular, mouth abruptly curved, tip of mouth acuminate, with spur ca. 15 mm; plants to 80 cm tall.   42 I. dolichoceras
+ Flowers golden-yellow or yellow, not spotted; lateral sepals oblong, ovate-oblong, or navicular, apex often obtuse; tip of mouth of lower sepal acute or shortly rostellate; plants 40-60 cm tall   (181)
       
181 (180) Flowers yellow, to 2 cm; lateral sepals oblong, 2-3 mm, apex obtuse, slightly thickening, midvein stout; lower sepal cornute, mouth ascending, tip of mouth acute.   40 I. dichroa
+ Flowers golden-yellow, ca. 3 cm; lateral sepals navicular, ca. 5 mm, membranous, broader on one side, 3-5-veined; lower sepal narrowly funnelform, mouth ascending, tip of mouth shortly rostellate.   41 I. siculifer
       
182 (179) Lateral sepals ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; tip of mouth of lower sepal not aristate   (183)
+ Lateral sepals falcate or hooked-curved, apex long aristate; tip of mouth of lower sepal with a long horn or long aristate   (184)
       
183 (182) Peduncles distinctly overtopping leaves, 3-5.3 cm; bracts subulate or subulate-lanceolate, apically without glands; tip of mouth of lower sepal obtuse or slightly acute, with a hooked, long spur; plants occurring at ca. 4100 m elevation.   43 I. longipes
+ Peduncles usually shorter than leaves; bracts ovate-lanceolate; tip of mouth of lower sepal cornute-rostellate, with a slightly curved, slender, long spur; plants occurring up to 3000 m elevation.   44 I. stenantha
       
184 (182) Flowers ca. 2.5 cm, pink, purple-brown striate; bracts linear, persistent.   48 I. ceratophora
+ Flowers smaller, yellow or orange-yellow, red spotted; bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate, caducous   (185)
       
185 (184) Leaves rigid, blade to 2.5 cm wide; peduncles overtopping leaves or ca. as long as leaves, inflorescences 3-5-flowered; lateral sepals hooked-curved, with awn 3-4 mm; tip of mouth of lower sepal fibrous, sometimes involute aristate; plants to 30 cm tall.   45 I. principis
+ Leaves membranous, blade 4-6 cm wide; peduncles overtopping or shorter than leaves, inflorescences 5-12-flowered; lateral sepals falcate, with a long awn; tip of mouth of lower sepal with a long horn or rostellate; plants 60-110 cm tall   (186)
       
186 (185) Bracts ovate-lanceolate, smaller, glandular cuspidate; upper petal orange-yellow, abaxial midvein slightly spurred; tip of mouth of lower sepal with a long green horn, with a helicoid, incurved spur; leaf blade apically acuminate; plants to 110 cm tall.   46 I. drepanophora
+ Bracts navicular-ovate, 8-10 mm, aristate; upper petal yellowish, abaxial midvein without a process; tip of mouth of lower sepal rostellate, with a slender, erect or curved spur; leaf blade apically acute; plants to 60 cm tall.   47 I. ruiliensis
       
187 (175) Flowers medium-sized, usually deeper than 2 cm   (188)
+ Flowers small, usually less than 1.5(-2) cm deep except spur   (213)
       
188 (187) Flowers yellow or whitish, rarely with purplish shade   (189)
+ Flowers purple, blue-purple, pink, pale purple, or pale pink, very rarely with light yellow shade   (197)
       
189 (188) Upper petal with cristate midvein   (190)
+ Upper petal without cristate midvein   (191)
       
190 (189) Flowers golden yellow, ca. 2.5 cm deep, with a saccate lower sepal; leaf blade lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate.   100 I. cristata
+ Flowers yellow, ca. 1.8 cm deep, with a funnelform lower sepal; leaf blade ovate-elliptic.   153 I. alpicola
       
191 (189) Flowers with pale purplish spots.   73 I. urticifolia
+ Flowers without purple spots   (192)
       
192 (191) Inflorescences (1 or)2-5-flowered.   70 I. nyimana
+ Inflorescences (5 or)6-13 flowered   (193)
       
193 (192) Leaf blade rhombic-ovate or rhombic-lanceolate.   58 I. furcillata
+ Leaf blade not rhombic-ovate, nor rhombic-lanceolate   (194)
       
194 (193) Flowers 3-3.5 cm deep; plants with dense yellow-brown glandular hairs.   32 I. cyathiflora
+ Flowers 2-2.5 cm deep; plants glabrous or with sparse glandular hairs   (195)
       
195 (194) Bracts caducous, apex scarcely mucronate, cuspidate.   35 I. scutisepala
+ Bracts persistent, apex acuminate or glandular aristate   (196)
       
196 (195) Flowers pale yellow with a saccate lower sepal; petiole with 2 globose glands at base.   33 I. clavicuspis
+ Flowers yellow with a funnelform lower sepal; petiole without basal glands.   34 I. loulanensis
       
197 (188) Leaf blade rhombic-ovate or rhombic-lanceolate   (198)
+ Leaf blade not rhombic-ovate or rhombic-lanceolate   (199)
       
198 (197) Stems and peduncles with dense red-purple glandular hairs; flowers 2.5-4 cm deep.   59 I. textorii
+ Stems and peduncles with sparse glandular hairs or without glandular hairs; flowers ca. 2 cm deep.   58 I. furcillata
       
199 (197) Flowers blue-purple to blue-violet or rarely purple to pale blue-purple   (200)
+ Flowers pink or pinkish   (205)
       
200 (199) Bracts caducous   (201)
+ Bracts persistent   (203)
       
201 (200) Inflorescences 3- or 4-flowered.   37 I. blinii
+ Inflorescences more than 5-flowered   (202)
       
202 (201) Distal lobes of lateral united petals with a rounded apex; pedicel 9-11 mm.   36 I. cyanantha
+ Distal lobes of lateral united petals with a retuse apex; pedicel 16-20 mm.   64 I. hancockii
       
203 (200) Lower sepal broadly sigmoid-curved-saccate.   71 I. bicornuta
+ Lower sepal obliquely or broadly funnelform   (204)
       
204 (203) Flowers 3.5-5 cm deep; distal lobes of lateral united petals lanceolate.   38 I. purpurea
+ Flowers 2-2.5 cm deep; distal lobes of lateral united petals dolabriform.   67 I. fragicolor
       
205 (199) Bracts caducous   (206)
+ Bracts persistent   (208)
       
206 (205) Inflorescences 3-5-flowered; flowers 2.5-3 cm deep.   61 I. uliginosa
+ Inflorescences 6-12-flowered; flowers 3-4 cm deep   (207)
       
207 (206) Leaf blade 4-7 cm wide; flowers ca. 3 cm deep.   39 I. pseudokingii
+ Leaf blade 1.5-2.5 cm wide; flowers 3.5-4 cm deep.   60 I. aquatilis
       
208 (205) Flowers 3-3.5 cm deep   (209)
+ Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm deep   (210)
       
209 (208) Flowers ca. 3 cm deep; lower sepal navicular-cornute; leaves alternate.   124 I. lateristachys
+ Flowers 3-3.5 cm deep; lower sepal saccate; leaves opposite or verticillate.   65 I. sulcata
       
210 (208) Bracts ovate-lanceolate   (211)
+ Bracts linear or narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate   (212)
       
211 (210) Flowers ca. 2 cm deep; all leaves sessile; bases of upper and middle leaves amplexicaul   68 I. amplexicaulis
+ Flowers 1.5-1.7 cm deep; lower and middle leaves shortly petiolate; bases of upper and middle leaves not amplexicaul.   69 I. chungtienensis
       
212 (210) Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm deep; basal lobes of lateral united petals rounded at apex, distal lobes of lateral united petals slightly acute at apex; apex of bract without glandular hairs.   63 I. jinggangensis
+ Flowers ca. 2 cm deep; basal lobes of lateral united petals acute at apex, distal lobes of lateral united petals rounded at apex; apex of bract with glandular hairs.   66 I. thomsonii
       
213 (187) Lower sepal without spur, navicular.   88 I. margaritifera
+ Lower sepal with spur, funnelform, navicular, or obconical   (214)
       
214 (213) Bracts caducous or nearly persistent   (215)
+ Bracts persistent   (222)
       
215 (214) Stem slender; flowers pale purple, 8-9 mm; lateral sepals falcate; capsule shortly clavate, 5-angled, tuberculate.   84 I. tuberculata
+ Stem relatively stout, rigid; flowers yellow, 5-10 mm in diam.; lateral sepals falcate; capsule linear or narrowly terete, not tuberculate   (216)
       
216 (215) Lateral sepal falcate-ovate, narrowly ovate, oblong, or obliquely lanceolate   (217)
+ Lateral sepal ovate to orbicular or subcordate   (219)
       
217 (216) Stem and branches sparsely stipitate glandular; bracts lanceolate, apex glandular aristate; flowers orange; lateral sepals obliquely lanceolate, glandular aristate; seeds tuberculate   85 I. polyceras
+ Stem and branches without glands; bracts ovate or oblong, apex not aristate; flowers yellow; lateral sepals ovate or oblong, not glandular aristate; seeds smooth   (218)
       
218 (217) Inflorescences racemose; peduncles many, crowded at apices of branches, usually shorter than leaves; lateral sepals falcate-ovate, 3-veined; abaxial midvein of upper petal narrowly cristate; lower sepal with an incurved spur 2-2.5 cm.   86 I. desmantha
+ Inflorescences corymbose; peduncles slender, in axils of upper part, distinctly overtopping leaves; lateral sepals narrowly ovate or oblong, midvein stout, not veined; abaxial midvein of upper petal without a process, lower sepal with a curved spur ca. 2 × as long as limb.   87 I. gracilipes
       
219 (216) Flowers less than 1 cm deep; leaves often crowded.   138 I. fargesii
+ Flowers 1-2 cm deep; leaves not crowded   (220)
       
220 (219) Flowers ca. 1 cm deep, white; lateral sepals lorate; margin of leaf blade serrulate or crenate-mucronulate.   113 I. membranifolia
+ Flowers 1-2 cm deep, yellow; lateral sepals orbicular or subcordate; margin of leaf blade crenate or crenulate   (221)
       
221 (220) Flowers 1-1.5 cm deep, yellow; leaf lateral veins 6-8 pairs.   134 I. crenulata
+ Flowers 1.5-2 cm deep, pale yellow; leaf lateral veins 2-4 pairs.   135 I. henryi
       
222 (214) Flowers many, pale purple to yellowish white, fascicled or verticillate, radiately arranged.   74 I. radiata
+ Flowers several, alternate, white, pink, or yellow, in racemes or corymbs   (223)
       
223 (222) Lateral united petals very shortly auriculate or without auricle; lower sepal conic or navicular   (224)
+ Lateral united petals auriculate; lower sepal navicular, with a long, curved spur   (226)
       
224 (223) Flowers white or pink; lateral sepals ovate or ovate-subulate, 3-veined, apex glandular apiculate, margin without glands; lower sepal navicular, with an erect, short spur.   76 I. laxiflora
+ Flowers yellow or yellowish; lower sepal conical, with an incurved, long spur   (225)
       
225 (224) Lateral sepals falcate or obliquely ovate, apex aristate; leaf blade membranous, lateral veins 7-9 pairs.   75 I. racemosa
+ Lateral sepals ovate-orbicular, apex obtuse; leaf blade papery, lateral veins 6 or 7 pairs.   123 I. microstachys
       
226 (223) Flowers ca. 1 cm in diam   (227)
+ Flowers more than 1 cm in diam   (229)
       
227 (226) Flowers pink; upper petal with abaxial midvein not carinate; lower sepal navicular, with an incurved spur ca. 1 cm; plants of Yunnan.   77 I. bahanensis
+ Flowers yellowish or white; lower sepal navicular, with a short, erect spur; plants of Xinjiang   (228)
       
228 (227) Flowers pale yellow, throat reddish spotted; lower sepal navicular, with a conical, erect spur 5-7 mm; leaf blade to 11 cm.   78 I. parviflora
+ Flowers white, not spotted; lower sepal with a cuneate-triangular, short spur shorter than 1 mm; leaf blade to 15 cm.   79 I. brachycentra
       
229 (226) Flowers sulfur-colored; bracts setaceous or lanceolate to linear, 1-1.5 mm; lower sepal with a rectangular or involute spur 1-1.2 cm or ca. 3.5 cm   (230)
+ Flowers yellow or pale yellow; bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 mm; lower sepal with an incurved or suberect spur 2-2.5 cm   (231)
       
230 (229) Lateral sepals obliquely ovate or sigmoid, 2-4 mm; lower sepal navicular, with a rectangular spur ca. 3.5 cm; peduncle 7-15 cm; leaf blade to 17 cm.   80 I. rectangula
+ Lateral sepals broadly ovate or orbicular, apically mucronulate; lower sepal navicular, mouth vertical, with an incurved, slender spur 1-1.2 cm; peduncle 3-6 cm; leaf blade to 8 cm.   81 I. thiochroa
       
231 (229) Stem robust, ca. 1 cm in diam. at base, many branched from lower part; peduncles axillary or terminal, inflorescences few flowered; flowers ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; lateral sepals narrowly triangular-ovate, 1-veined; leaf blade with 4 or 5 pairs of lateral veins.   82 I. crassicaudex
+ Stem slightly slender, branched; peduncles axillary, inflorescences 3-10-flowered, corymbose or racemose; flowers 1.5-2 cm; lateral sepals obliquely ovate or falcate, 3-6 veined; leaf blade with 6-8 pairs of lateral veins.   83 I. infirma

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